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The ethico-mathematical analogy is ancient, but it did gain some recent prominence among analytic philosophers. Clarke-Doane's Moral Epistemology: The Mathematics Analogy, Franklin's On the Parallel between Mathematics and Morals, Lear's Ethics, Mathematics and Relativism all focus on the analogy. And all of them name book VII of Plato's Republic as its ...


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God's attributes known negatively Following St. Damascene (De Fide Orth. i, 4), St. Thomas Aquinas writes (Summa Theologica I q. 2 a. 2 arg. 2): we cannot know in what God's essence consists, but solely in what it does not consist This is called apophatic theology; ἀποϕατικός = negative. This is the manner in which we know the divine attributes by natural ...


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Here is Wikipedia's description of an argument from analogy: Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is one of the most common methods by which human beings attempt to understand the world and make ...


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You are simply noticing that generalization works; not everything is a special case. Electrons have a position (sort of). People have a position. Both can move. Both can be constrained while they move. An analogy is just a form of generalization where instead of stating the general form, you state a different specific form. So instead of saying, ...


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Thomas Aquinas's short work De Principiis Naturæ concisely summarizes the three types of predication: […] "Being" [ens], however, is not a genus because it is not predicated univocally, but only analogically. In order to understand this last we must notice something is predicated of many things in three ways: univocally, equivocally and analogically. ...


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Yes, Williams "Jim and the Indians" and the drifter problem (the usual name for what you describe as the five transplant recipients vs. one drifter case) are philosophically distinct and generally considered different. Working from memory, that's also a difference Williams is aware of when he comes up with it. In the drifter problem, the agent is killing ...


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Especially in introductory logic textbooks, deductive arguments are usually defined something like this: "the conclusion must be true given the premises" or "it's impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false." Then inductive arguments are defined as arguments that aren't deductive. Using this definition, the Miracle-Gro argument counts ...


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This phrase is also found in discussions of Gnosticism. Gnosticism became extinct. The Nag Hammadi Library dates back to the 4th century (CE) and it is currently in print. A text you might be interested in reading comes from The book of Thomas. The passage numbered 25 reads: When you make the two one, and when you make the inside like the outside and ...


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"As above, so below" is a phrase from Hermeticism, which is more of an occult tradition than a philosophical one (though it has certain similarities to Neoplatonism, perhaps because both emerged around the same time and place and so drew from a similar set of ideas and intellectual/religious trends...also note that the term Hermeticism refers to the mythical ...


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It seems that most ad hominem arguments are analogies. Comparisons of people to Hitler and Stalin are among the most familiar. Often the comparison is inappropriate, but it is still an analogy. However, I would say that the truly irrelevant ad hominem argument fails even as an analogy. Person A argues that two plus two equals four, and Person B disagrees, ...


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Irving Copi's Introduction to Logic discusses analogies in depth and yet at an undergraduate level. Since this book presents logic in general it also has parts on other topics related to logic such as informal arguments, language and deduction. Even the section on analogies is part of a larger presentation on induction which includes causal connection, ...


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Visualization is not necessarily related to space. An Ames Room[1] is an example of how perception of space does not depend on vision but on preconceived ideas (synthetic a priori?[2]). In any case, if we do a naive correlation between with perception of space with vision and perception of time, perhaps the term could be causality. As visualization ...


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'Akin to' is hardly a precise term; your use of 'analogy' is to be preferred. This is not the place to settle the mattter on legal grounds. Ethically how does the analogy stand up? It is a requirement of justice not to discriminate against persons on the grounds of an irrelevant difference. The employer who discriminates against gays does so on the basis ...


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Me: We ought to want to pay for people who get sick, even from smoking. Him: Do you also want to pay for people who break their legs skydiving? This is a perfectly valid question. I don't even think it qualifies as reasoning from analogy. The question here is, what fundamental principles do you hold? You say that you are willing to argue against democracy, ...


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I believe there are a few problems with the two statements you consider to be analytic: 1) Cats have four legs -- Cats with serious injuries and cats born with deformities are still cats. Even if we pretend that injuries and deformities are somehow irrelevant, or if we imagine that the only cats that exist are fully-formed and healthy, there is still no ...


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This analogy seems to me rather to suggest that our ontology likely has limits that we cannot conceive of. After all, if the dog was able to formulate the thought, he would probably also describe his ontology as "maximal." As support for this --would you describe the ontology of a human being in a hunter-gatherer tribe ten thousand years ago as maximal? ...


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