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6

It's called Chesterton's Fence. Chesterton's point is that ignorance of the purpose of a law is not a good reason to change it. His point isn't that laws can't be changed; it's that we should know what the original purpose of the law was before we change it. It's just a general injunction about not acting in ignorance.


4

Here is Wikipedia's description of an argument from analogy: Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is one of the most common methods by which human beings attempt to understand the world and make ...


4

The ethico-mathematical analogy is ancient, but it did gain some recent prominence among analytic philosophers. Clarke-Doane's Moral Epistemology: The Mathematics Analogy, Franklin's On the Parallel between Mathematics and Morals, Lear's Ethics, Mathematics and Relativism all focus on the analogy. And all of them name book VII of Plato's Republic as its ...


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Think of some examples. Here's a classic Thomist "analogical" term: "healthy". Properly speaking it is only bodies that are healthy, and for a body to be healthy is for it to be in good working order. For medicine to be healthy isn't for the medicine to be in good working order, it is for the medicine to have the power to put bodies into good working order. ...


3

You are simply noticing that generalization works; not everything is a special case. Electrons have a position (sort of). People have a position. Both can move. Both can be constrained while they move. An analogy is just a form of generalization where instead of stating the general form, you state a different specific form. So instead of saying, ...


3

Yes, Williams "Jim and the Indians" and the drifter problem (the usual name for what you describe as the five transplant recipients vs. one drifter case) are philosophically distinct and generally considered different. Working from memory, that's also a difference Williams is aware of when he comes up with it. In the drifter problem, the agent is killing ...


3

Especially in introductory logic textbooks, deductive arguments are usually defined something like this: "the conclusion must be true given the premises" or "it's impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false." Then inductive arguments are defined as arguments that aren't deductive. Using this definition, the Miracle-Gro argument counts ...


2

It seems that most ad hominem arguments are analogies. Comparisons of people to Hitler and Stalin are among the most familiar. Often the comparison is inappropriate, but it is still an analogy. However, I would say that the truly irrelevant ad hominem argument fails even as an analogy. Person A argues that two plus two equals four, and Person B disagrees, ...


2

What makes you assume that human ontology is maximal? Kant surely did not. He assumed we are bound by the forms of intuition to almost always merely approximate reality, whereas a divine being would be able to know a deeper reality more directly. Presumably a semi-divine being would see some intermediate approximation much better than what we might attain....


1

Since I know very little of theology and you've removed the "theology" tag I am putting down some linguistic observations. The words "god" and "good" are almost the same in English. Coincidence??? Consider some other languages : English : good : god German : gut : gott Irish : dea- dearfach : diacht Swedish: god(adj), gott(adv) : gud Icelandic : gott ...


1

Visualization is not necessarily related to space. An Ames Room[1] is an example of how perception of space does not depend on vision but on preconceived ideas (synthetic a priori?[2]). In any case, if we do a naive correlation between with perception of space with vision and perception of time, perhaps the term could be causality. As visualization ...


1

Visualization : Space :: Music : Time Visualization occupies space, whereas music occupies time.


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'Akin to' is hardly a precise term; your use of 'analogy' is to be preferred. This is not the place to settle the mattter on legal grounds. Ethically how does the analogy stand up? It is a requirement of justice not to discriminate against persons on the grounds of an irrelevant difference. The employer who discriminates against gays does so on the basis ...


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Me: We ought to want to pay for people who get sick, even from smoking. Him: Do you also want to pay for people who break their legs skydiving? This is a perfectly valid question. I don't even think it qualifies as reasoning from analogy. The question here is, what fundamental principles do you hold? You say that you are willing to argue against ...


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It's both. Analogy is never officially logically valid, but it is rhetorically cogent. And reasonable logic is never so precise that some degree of analogy is totally absent. It is a natural part of every argument that is not about a simple, individual case. No useful generalization is made strictly upon the defined attributes of the things being ...


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Ad hominem arguments are also often genetic fallacies. "Why should we consider the logic of a lesbian about family planning?" "Don't even bother to start mansplaining." "How could you know what is wrong with our two-party system? You aren't even an American!" This can't really be an argument from analogy, because bigotry is resistant to previous ...


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I believe there are a few problems with the two statements you consider to be analytic: 1) Cats have four legs -- Cats with serious injuries and cats born with deformities are still cats. Even if we pretend that injuries and deformities are somehow irrelevant, or if we imagine that the only cats that exist are fully-formed and healthy, there is still no ...


1

This analogy seems to me rather to suggest that our ontology likely has limits that we cannot conceive of. After all, if the dog was able to formulate the thought, he would probably also describe his ontology as "maximal." As support for this --would you describe the ontology of a human being in a hunter-gatherer tribe ten thousand years ago as maximal? ...


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