10

In several places, most notably the discussion of the "Allegory of the Cave" in The Republic, Plato's Socrates identifies the Ideal of the Good as the singular source of all good things in the universe. Plato's followers, the Neoplatonists, further identified this Idea of the Good with God, a perspective that was very influential on early ...


10

This sounds like the identity of indiscernibles, (not to be confused with the indiscernibility of identicals) first formulated by Leibniz. If two objects have all their properties in common, then those two objects must in fact be identical. Slightly more formally, for every x and every y: if, for every property P, x is P if and only if y is P, then x = y. ...


8

There's a linguistic problem with calling things prior to the ancient Greeks philosophies. But leaving that aside, there's three main things I can think of that could be said to have some philosophical content: Religious texts such as the Jewish Scriptures, which make ethical and metaphysical claims. The Confucian Analects, The early Daoist texts like the ...


8

tl;dr– This is a pretty basic observation that appears in a lot of ancient works. I'd guess that you might be thinking of Heraclitus, who was big into how "no man may step into the same river twice" – because neither the man nor the river could change. This is an ancient concept, almost certainly predating recorded history, so it's hard to guess ...


7

So, what led to the birth of philosophical thought as opposed to mythological tradition in the Ancient West? This is not really a philosophy question, but a question of history. A good, provocative book on the subject is Thomas McEvilley's The Shape of Ancient Thought, which looks at the historical connections between the philosophical traditions of the ...


7

To add to Virmaoir's answer The Rig Veda is estimated to date from at least 1100 BCE, possibly earlier. Although mainly a mythological and religious text, it contains passages such as this one: Then even nothingness was not, nor existence, There was no air then, nor the heavens beyond it. What covered it? Where was it? In whose keeping Was there ...


6

Since you said a standalone deduction is fine, I'll offer what I think might work having extrapolated the sort of reasoning used in the second one. The way "a brown horse and a dark ox" might be "three together" is this: A brown horse; A dark ox; A brown horse and a dark ox. That is, each animal is itself one object, and then the two of them together is a ...


6

Assuming that there are no extant works of Thales or Thales of Miletus (c. 620 BCE – c. 546 BCE), numerous sources, starting from his contemporaries accredited him with sicentific discoveries (geometry) and a "naturalistic" approach, based on rejection of godly intervention in the explanation of natural phenomena.


6

On the issue of Euclidean Arithmetic, see by Ian Mueller, Philosophy of Mathematics and Deductive Structure in Euclid's Elements (1981 - Dover reprint). All Ch.2 is devoted to this topic; see page 58 : In books VII-IX Euclid develops the subject of arithmetic in almost complete isolation from the remainder of the Elements. [...] [In contrast to previous ...


6

My expertise lies more towards the ethics side of things (especially with Aristotle), but I think Aristotle's point here generally makes sense so I will see if I can spell it out better. One confusing and important point is that "change" in English is broader in meaning than what Aristotle means, which could be called "alteration" instead. On Aristotle's ...


6

Nygren believed and argued that agape, in the sense it bears in the New Testament, is a distinctively Christian notion, without counterpart in Ancient Greek or at any rate in Ancient Greek philosophy. He is probably right in this but it is a separate question whether agape in its New Testament sense is completely discontinuous with, or unprefigured by, all ...


5

We have a good number of fragments that are attributed to Parmenides himself. Specifically regarding the void, Parmenides asserts that you cannot separate what is from what is, because doing so implies a something that is not. Since what is not is not, it can't be used as a property of difference. Thus, there can't be any difference in the world, which ...


5

Check out the treatment Deleuze gives to the question of luminosity in Plotinus here. You will see that light in that sense, is not just for an eye to see, and to contemplate is therefore not just to look at, but alternatively to realize out of what one [lowercase] is becoming. So it is not "an activity of the mind", at least not in a concrete, "physical" ...


5

Nobody knows what Plato wrote on because no originals survive. However, papyrus was the standard at the time of Plato. You can check out some examples here. Leather was also used for writing in his time, but parchment probably wasn't popular until at least couple hundred years later. It's worth noting that parchment wasn't simply invented on a particular ...


5

According to Quintilian (Inst. 8 6.64) and Diogenes Laertius (3.37), Plato probably first wrote on wax tablets, and then retranscribed them on papyrus. The image of the wax tablet (Plato: Theaetetus, Timaeus. Aristotle:De Anima, Parva Naturalia) to illustrate the memory, the acquisition of knowledge or the nature of intellect is also a sign of this practice.


5

Same locus [translated by R.P. Hardie and R.K. Gaye, from The Complete Works of Aristotle. Volume 1, the Revised Oxford Translation, edited by Jonathan Barnes, 1984]: The universal is knowable in the order of explanation, the particular in the order of sense; for explanation has to do with the universal, sense with the particular. Thus, "empirical" ...


5

I'm put in mind of Socrates' speech in the Symposium, 201d- 212c, expressed as the report of a discourse of Diotima, the wise woman from Mantinea. I summarise from W.R.M. Lamb, Symposium, Loeb: Harvard & London, 1961: 172-209. To improve the soul, Diotima says, it is perfectly correct, indeed necessary, in early life to be acutely aware of bodily beauty ...


4

Orchestra in ancient Greece wasn't only the place of the theater between the stage and the viewers where the chorus was standing but also an open place near the market where books and other items were sold. I translate the paragraph "Geometric - Archaic period 1100 - 480 BC" from the article "Αρχαία Αγορά της Αθήνας" (ancient market of Athens) from Greek ...


4

See in Wiki : Classical element. It is clearly an abstract "schema" dating back to the Presocratics but known to us mainly through Plato and Aristotle; Aristotle related the four elements to the four sensible qualities. It must be read as an explanatory schema devoided of (current) phisycal or chemical interpretation. In Empedocles we read : It ...


4

From Wikipedia: Socrates initially earned his living as a master stonecutter... Several of Plato's dialogues refer to Socrates' military service.... In 406, he was a member of the Boule [group of governing aristocrats]. Socrates repeatedly describes himself as being poor, for example in the Apology: if I had been like other men, I should not have ...


4

Plotinus traveled to ancient Persia in order to understand more of Persian and Indian Philosophy. His philosophy very much resembles the Indian Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Let me interpret, using Advaitic texts, his use of the word ‘contemplation’ as used in the Enneads; specifically the Third Ennead: Eighth and Ninth Tractates (3.8 and 3.9). I will first ...


4

The aphorism "πάντα ρει" (everything flows) which is attributed to Heraclitus τὰ ὄντα ἰέναι τε πάντα καὶ μένειν οὐδέν "All entities move and nothing remains still"// Plato's Cratylus is related to the nature of the world and not specifically to "time" . The river is a metaphor and it means that "change" differentiates the being of things constantly. (...


4

Any answer about Socrates faces the difficulty that we do not have any texts written by Socrates but only texts written about Socrates. Texts about Socrates have been written by Plato, by Aristophanes and by Xenophon. The Socrates from Plato's late dialogues is certainly a fiction of Plato. While the Socrates of the early dialogues - Crito, Phaedo - and in ...


4

By "mind" Anaxagoras meant a cosmic element, not merely the human mind. This can be seen in Socrates' account of his expectations from Anaxagoras, a bit after the passage that you quoted: And I rejoiced to think that I had found in Anaxagoras a teacher of the causes of existence such as I desired, and I imagined that he would tell me first whether the ...


4

Full quote : 46. Never call yourself a philosopher, nor talk a great deal among the unlearned about theorems, but act conformably to them. Thus, at an entertainment, don't talk how persons ought to eat, but eat as you ought. For remember that in this manner Socrates also universally avoided all ostentation. And when persons came to him and desired to be ...


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