40

It's essentially impossible to offer definitive proof on the matter, but it's extremely unlikely that Socrates was merely a figment of Plato's imagination. The primary evidence in this regard is the fact that multiple independent sources make reference to him in various ways. For example, the philosopher Xenophon of Athens was a student and admirer of ...


13

The Stoics were continuum theorists, the Epicureans were atomists. These are conflicting positions. The Stoics upheld bivalence for propositions, the Epicureans seemed to be happy to give up bivalence for future contingents. These are likely to be conflicting positions. (I say likely, since the Epicureans did not subscribe to the Stoic theory of propositions ...


12

Nothing directly attributed to Thales that has come down to us, but Aristotle does mention four views in his books: The earth rests on water. (De Caelo) Water is the archê of all things. (Metaphysics) The magnet has a soul. (De Anima) All things are full of gods. (De Anima) Aristotle inteprets this in several ways: Archê is Aristotle’s ...


8

Socrates was a living person, and was really sentenced to death. He wasn't the only one being sentenced to death for contrived reasons during that time in Athens. People fleeing Athens for fear of persecution sometimes referred to Socrates death for justification. I see this as some form of convention, because the accusation "not holding the gods in honor" ...


8

In several places, most notably the discussion of the "Allegory of the Cave" in The Republic, Plato's Socrates identifies the Ideal of the Good as the singular source of all good things in the universe. Plato's followers, the Neoplatonists, further identified this Idea of the Good with God, a perspective that was very influential on early Christian theology....


7

So, what led to the birth of philosophical thought as opposed to mythological tradition in the Ancient West? This is not really a philosophy question, but a question of history. A good, provocative book on the subject is Thomas McEvilley's The Shape of Ancient Thought, which looks at the historical connections between the philosophical traditions of the ...


7

Apart from my 1996 "Stoic Syllogistic" there are two other semi-formal treatments of Stoic logic that acknowledge historical data overlooked by (or unknown to) Kneale&Kneale and Benson Mates: Peter Milne's 1995 "On the completeness of non-philonian Stoic logic" and Mario Mignucci's 1993 "The Stoic Themata". Both introduce axioms into their system that ...


7

There's a linguistic problem with calling things prior to the ancient Greeks philosophies. But leaving that aside, there's three main things I can think of that could be said to have some philosophical content: Religious texts such as the Jewish Scriptures, which make ethical and metaphysical claims. The Confucian Analects, The early Daoist texts like the ...


7

To add to Virmaoir's answer The Rig Veda is estimated to date from at least 1100 BCE, possibly earlier. Although mainly a mythological and religious text, it contains passages such as this one: Then even nothingness was not, nor existence, There was no air then, nor the heavens beyond it. What covered it? Where was it? In whose keeping Was there ...


6

Since you said a standalone deduction is fine, I'll offer what I think might work having extrapolated the sort of reasoning used in the second one. The way "a brown horse and a dark ox" might be "three together" is this: A brown horse; A dark ox; A brown horse and a dark ox. That is, each animal is itself one object, and then the two of them together is a ...


6

Assuming that there are no extant works of Thales or Thales of Miletus (c. 620 BCE – c. 546 BCE), numerous sources, starting from his contemporaries accredited him with sicentific discoveries (geometry) and a "naturalistic" approach, based on rejection of godly intervention in the explanation of natural phenomena.


6

On the issue of Euclidean Arithmetic, see by Ian Mueller, Philosophy of Mathematics and Deductive Structure in Euclid's Elements (1981 - Dover reprint). All Ch.2 is devoted to this topic; see page 58 : In books VII-IX Euclid develops the subject of arithmetic in almost complete isolation from the remainder of the Elements. [...] [In contrast to previous ...


6

My expertise lies more towards the ethics side of things (especially with Aristotle), but I think Aristotle's point here generally makes sense so I will see if I can spell it out better. One confusing and important point is that "change" in English is broader in meaning than what Aristotle means, which could be called "alteration" instead. On Aristotle's ...


6

Nygren believed and argued that agape, in the sense it bears in the New Testament, is a distinctively Christian notion, without counterpart in Ancient Greek or at any rate in Ancient Greek philosophy. He is probably right in this but it is a separate question whether agape in its New Testament sense is completely discontinuous with, or unprefigured by, all ...


5

I found a photo-copied essay on the Poetics from my past that includes a relevant passage (emphasis mine): Perhaps no other work of Aristotle's has had such an influence on subsequent generations of philosophers and artists as this one has had. Although Aristotle never intended the Poetics to be a fully thought out philosophy of art, it nevertheless was ...


5

We have a good number of fragments that are attributed to Parmenides himself. Specifically regarding the void, Parmenides asserts that you cannot separate what is from what is, because doing so implies a something that is not. Since what is not is not, it can't be used as a property of difference. Thus, there can't be any difference in the world, which ...


5

I think Nussbaum may be on the right track, although I think it goes wider than the Hellenistic schools. For example, yoga in Indian philosophy, in western practice is seen as therapy, similarly for Buddhism. Further Jesus, in the Islamic tradition is seen as a healer, and also certain aspects of Shamanistic practices can be seen in that light too. One could ...


5

Check out the treatment Deleuze gives to the question of luminosity in Plotinus here. You will see that light in that sense, is not just for an eye to see, and to contemplate is therefore not just to look at, but alternatively to realize out of what one [lowercase] is becoming. So it is not "an activity of the mind", at least not in a concrete, "physical" ...


5

Nobody knows what Plato wrote on because no originals survive. However, papyrus was the standard at the time of Plato. You can check out some examples here. Leather was also used for writing in his time, but parchment probably wasn't popular until at least couple hundred years later. It's worth noting that parchment wasn't simply invented on a particular ...


5

According to Quintilian (Inst. 8 6.64) and Diogenes Laertius (3.37), Plato probably first wrote on wax tablets, and then retranscribed them on papyrus. The image of the wax tablet (Plato: Theaetetus, Timaeus. Aristotle:De Anima, Parva Naturalia) to illustrate the memory, the acquisition of knowledge or the nature of intellect is also a sign of this practice.


5

Same locus [translated by R.P. Hardie and R.K. Gaye, from The Complete Works of Aristotle. Volume 1, the Revised Oxford Translation, edited by Jonathan Barnes, 1984]: The universal is knowable in the order of explanation, the particular in the order of sense; for explanation has to do with the universal, sense with the particular. Thus, "empirical" ...


4

Orchestra in ancient Greece wasn't only the place of the theater between the stage and the viewers where the chorus was standing but also an open place near the market where books and other items were sold. I translate the paragraph "Geometric - Archaic period 1100 - 480 BC" from the article "Αρχαία Αγορά της Αθήνας" (ancient market of Athens) from Greek ...


4

As the Greeks moved from a mytho-poetic cosmology to one focused on rational enquiry, were there general philosophical ideas that arose, and that would have proposed and made convincing the case for a spherical Earth? Yes: observation. The sight of ships appearing on the horizon (masts first) makes the curvature of the earth evident. I think a better ...


4

It is absurdly anachronistic to attempt to look for 20th or 21st century physics in the works of the classical philosophers. Heraclitus was not writing about superposition, he was writing about something else. Now, I would argue that it is a worthwhile pursuit to attempt to understand what this something else is, but we're not going to be able to do that ...


4

See in Wiki : Classical element. It is clearly an abstract "schema" dating back to the Presocratics but known to us mainly through Plato and Aristotle; Aristotle related the four elements to the four sensible qualities. It must be read as an explanatory schema devoided of (current) phisycal or chemical interpretation. In Empedocles we read : It was ...


4

From Wikipedia: Socrates initially earned his living as a master stonecutter... Several of Plato's dialogues refer to Socrates' military service.... In 406, he was a member of the Boule [group of governing aristocrats]. Socrates repeatedly describes himself as being poor, for example in the Apology: if I had been like other men, I should not have ...


4

Plotinus traveled to ancient Persia in order to understand more of Persian and Indian Philosophy. His philosophy very much resembles the Indian Advaita Vedanta philosophy. Let me interpret, using Advaitic texts, his use of the word ‘contemplation’ as used in the Enneads; specifically the Third Ennead: Eighth and Ninth Tractates (3.8 and 3.9). I will first ...


4

Taking Ancient Greece to signify the Athens of Plato and Aristotle then there are an agreed upon set of philosophical schools that preceded them; they're usually designated as the pre-socratics and tend to be seen as theorising on cosmology ie metaphysics rather than ethics. Thus Parmenides and Pythagorus theorising on the One as Permenance; Heraclitus on ...


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