5

The Ancient Greeks were definitely aware of Zoroastrianism-(in fact, the name, "Zoroaster", is a Greek translation of the original Farsi name, "Zarathustra"). The main reason why the Greeks were aware of Zoroastrianism-(and greater Persian culture), is because the Persian Empire conquered Greco-Anatolia-(present-day Turkish coast) 2500 ...


3

There is indeed a very similar parable in Plato's work, but it isn't told by Socrates, it's presented as a challenge to Socrates by one of his interlocutors, Glaucon (Plato's brother) near the beginning of the Republic (around 360). It's called the "Ring of Gyges," and it's a legend of a shepherd who finds a ring that makes him invisible, and uses ...


3

Very few fragments extant. The source is Aristotle, De Caelo, II, 13: [295b10-296a21] there are some, Anaximander, for instance, among the ancients, who say that the earth keeps its place because of its indifference. Motion upward and downward and sideways were all, they thought, equally inappropriate to that which is set at the centre and indifferently ...


1

Philology and historical sources. See e.g. T.H. Irvine, The Platonic Corpus, into Gail Fine (editor) The Oxford Handbook of Plato (2008, Oxford University Press): six works [are] listed under "spurious" [De Iusto, De Virtute, Demodocus, Sisyphus, Eryxias, and Axiochus]. In addition to the six recognized spurious works, other works are "...


1

The myth of Plato, author of Socratic dialogues is tenacious and there are various reasons for it. Among them chiefly the propaganda of various moralists who did no like his turning in old age to purely epistemic and even naturalistic problems. No matter how disputable, the chronology of his texts shows just this and Charles H. Khan published in 2013 his ...


1

Plato (like Socrates, as depicted in the Phaedrus) thought that philosophy should be an oral practice. Philosophy in dialog is a living thing: sensitive to context and nuance, and giving the philosopher the opportunity to correct misunderstandings and explain subtleties. Philosophy in writing is dead bones, which later readers then try putting flesh and life ...


1

One paraphrase is attributed to the Dutch humanist, Hugo Grotius: A man cannot govern a nation if he cannot govern a city; he cannot govern a city if he cannot govern a family; he cannot govern a family unless he can govern himself; and he cannot govern himself unless his passions are subject to reason. An example attribution comes from Government in ...


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