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Substance is a common terminology in metaphysics which have many different versions belonging to different schools of thought. If restricted to Aristotle's hylomorphic version, substance can be classified as primary substance and secondary substance according to reference here: A substance—that which is called a substance most strictly, primarily, and most ...


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Based on the example you gave, I believe that your confusion is a result of a misunderstanding of his point. This is what you said: Now let's say that two colors (red and yellow) were mixed to give us a new color (orange). In this case, the cause of the new color (the effect) is the mixed two colors (the cause). The two colors didn't have what's in the ...


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From https://philosophy.lander.edu/intro/cause.shtml : There is an efficient cause for everything; nothing can be the efficient cause of itself. It is not possible to regress to infinity in efficient causes. To take away the cause is to take away the effect. If there be no first cause then there will be no others. Therefore, a First Cause exists (and this ...


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St. Thomas states in Summa Theologica I-II q. 94 a. 2 co. that all what you call "certain 'logical-metaphysical presuppositions'" derive from the principle of non-contradiction, which derives from the notion of being and non-being: the first indemonstrable principle is that "the same thing cannot be affirmed and denied at the same time" [...


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