27 votes
Accepted

Why is Aristotle's objection not considered a resolution to Zeno's paradox?

Aristotle's solution was largely accepted until the end of 19th century when Cantor and Dedekind formalized the notion of continuum in terms of set theory. Under their interpretation time is in fact ...
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  • 41k
26 votes
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Is there any worth—other than historical—to reading Aristotle's works on logic?

Logic means something different now than what it once did. In classical philosophy one primary branch of philosophy investigated the cosmos, one investigated human life, and a third investigated the ...
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  • 1,102
21 votes
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Why bother with anything else besides Aristotle's syllogistic logic?

Aristotle's syllogistic logic is too weak for serious work. It does not readily express multi-place predicates. You cannot express two-place relations like, "John loves Mary", or three-...
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  • 15.7k
20 votes
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Why did the mid-19th century and earlier thinkers fixate on one-place predicates?

Because there was a calculus for one-place predicates, Aristotle's syllogistic, roughly equivalent to monadic predicate calculus. Aristotle does discuss "relatives" in Categories, which ...
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  • 41k
17 votes

The problem of Motion

I recommend to start with the arrow paradox by the Greek philosopher Zeno, see https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/paradox-zeno/#ParMot Afterwards you could study how calculus formalizes the limit ...
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14 votes

Is there any worth—other than historical—to reading Aristotle's works on logic?

No, Aristotle's logic has not been rendered obsolete or disproved; "modern works still reference/use his logic frequently" (courtesy: V2Blast). See, for example: Łukasiewicz, Jan. 1957. Aristotle's ...
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  • 7,286
13 votes

Why is Russell so critical of Aristotle?

The history of ideas and the history of philosophy is a world riddled with boogeymen versions of certain philosophers. Some of the more common historical boogeymen are "Plato", "Aristotle", "...
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  • 24.3k
13 votes
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Does Aristotle ever explicitly refer to man as a "rational animal"?

Kind of. The obvious As animal sociale is the Latin, especially Scholastic translation of zoon politikon, just as animal rationale is the translation of ζῷον λόγον ἔχον, zōon logon ekhon, he ...
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  • 11.1k
12 votes

Why is Russell so critical of Aristotle?

I think Russell is fairly clear in this passage --his gripe is not so much with Aristotle, but with how (in his opinion) Aristotelian thought continued to dominate the fields of science, philosophy, ...
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12 votes
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Do all epistemologies suffer from the "regress of justifications" problem?

Terminology changed somewhat, and much of what used to be called "logic" as late as early 20th century is now called epistemology, for more details see What are the differences between philosophies ...
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10 votes
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How do Thomists prove that: "Everything that exists must exist by something."?

Thomists affirm theism, but God would be a counterexample to your proposition as stated: God is something "that exists" in Himself; He does not "exist by something [else]". ...
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  • 7,286
8 votes

Are infinities in physics (or in any other materalist philosophy) actually possible?

Most physicists don't accept infinities for a very obvious reason: such infinite physical objects are not quantifiable! That is, we can't measure them or even prove that they are infinite. Through ...
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  • 325
8 votes

Why is Russell so critical of Aristotle?

Regarding specifically Russell's attitude towards Aristotle's logic, I have come to wonder if in the course of a justified complaint about an enormous time span of intellectual stagnation, Russell ...
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8 votes
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What does Aristotle mean by showing fear in times of boldness?

The context is human action and its "rationality": [ 1113b.1 ] The activities in which the virtues are exercised deal with means. Therefore virtue also depends on ourselves. And so also ...
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7 votes
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Why does Aristotle suggest One is not a number?

1 is not a number because 1 happens to be the (a?) unit. And a number, by definition, is a multitude of units. So clearly then, the two are distinct. See Metaphysics 1052b35, Posterior Analytics ...
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7 votes

Please contrast Aristotle's 'material' vs 'formal' aitia

Aristotle discovered hylemorphism to reconcile the reality of change with the stability of being. Previously, the Parmenideans, on one hand, held that (a) nothing changes and that change is an ...
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  • 7,286
7 votes
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Are there necessary truths in physical theories, more or less strictly speaking?

Strictly speaking there are no absolute necessities in physics. But strictly speaking there are no absolute necessities in mathematics and logic either. Mathematical theories have axioms, necessity of ...
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7 votes
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Is Aristotle's resolution of Zeno's paradoxes vindicated by motion in the intuitionistic continuum?

There are several notions of intuitionistic continuum, the closest ones to Aristotle's are Brouwer's "fluid continuum", and especially late Weyl’s version of it since On the New Foundational Crisis of ...
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7 votes

What's the difference between Aristotle's logic and Frege's logic especially with regard to predicates?

There are several important differences between the logics of Aristotle and Frege. 1.Aristotle understood sentences to be fundamentally of the form Subject-Predicate. He classified sentences into ...
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7 votes

Seeking the Source of an Aristotle quotation

Aristotle, 'In the case of objects which involve no matter, what thinks and what is thought are identical' ('De Anima', III, 430a, 3-4). (J.A. Smith tr., Oxford.)
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  • 34.7k
7 votes
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Why were Kant's categories used in the mathematical category theory?

The paper General Theory of Natural Equivalences by Eilenberg and Mac Lane (1945), where the terminology is first introduced, mentions neither Aristotle, nor Kant, nor even Carnap, who was still alive....
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7 votes

Reference Format to Aristotle Book

That's not quite right for the parsing. What you're seeing is BOOK Chapter and Bekker notation. Your example: Met. I.3 983b6–18 = Metaphysics Book I Chapter 3 Bekker page 983 column b lines 6-...
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  • 24.3k
7 votes

Aristotle's Categories with academic commentary

Aristotle, Aristotle's Categories and De Interpretatione, Published by Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1963. Translated with notes by J.L.Ackrill. Ackrill was a fine scholar and I still find this book ...
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  • 34.7k
7 votes

What other philosophers I read before taking a class on “being and time”

Given that you have about a month and a half to prepare, in which you estimate you can read two or three books, I would not recommend starting with Aristotle to understand Being and Time. Instead, I ...
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  • 24.3k
7 votes
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What does Aquinas mean when he refers to things being "identical numerically" or "specifically identical" with things?

The efficient cause is not numerically identical with the effect because the "things" involved into the "production process" are different individials : the father of John generates John but he is a ...
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7 votes

Why did the mid-19th century and earlier thinkers fixate on one-place predicates?

An n-ary relation gives rise to parameterized unary predicates if one fixes n-1 arguments. Wilfrid Hodges argues that this is what logicians did before the nineteenth century. (There may be other ...
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  • 201
7 votes

Why bother with anything else besides Aristotle's syllogistic logic?

From a modern point of view, Aristotle's Logic is a subset of predicate logic, called Monadic predicate logic: monadic predicate calculus (also called monadic first-order logic) is the fragment of ...
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7 votes

The problem of Motion

To enlarge upon Jo Wehler's answer, Zeno's Paradox was only a paradox for philosophers, not for Zeno's neighbors who sailed boats, walked down roads, built buildings, plowed the earth or carried rocks ...
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6 votes
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Is the categorical syllogistic a formal system?

Those are indeed sufficient to justify the claim that the categorical syllogistic can be transformed into a formal system. A formal system (or a proof system) can be thought of as a triple (L, Γ,...
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6 votes

Are mathematical suppositions of physical theories determined uniquely according to Aristotle and Plato?

I am not sure that saving phenomena can be used to argue that Plato and Aristotle admitted or did not admit that different suppositions might be consistent with them. At the time Plato posed the ...
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