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Virtues (like grace) are accidental qualities of the soul. They can be gained or loss, just like the redness of an apple can be gained or lost. Characters are indelible marks (cf. the OED's etymology for "character"). Bernard Wuellner, S.J., gives these definition in his Dictionary of Scholastic Philosophy p. 323: virtue, n. 1. a good operative habit ...


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In English and in line with the ordinary language philosophers who appeal to definitions not based on abstruse metaphysical speculation but rather ordinary language description, strength has several meanings with respect to force: Strength used colloquially can be seen as that which has the potential to exert force as in a strong man or powerful motor. A ...


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strength is the capacity to resist a force without failure or compromise. something or someone who is strong will not break when a force is applied. power is the speed with which work can be performed. something or someone who is powerful can perform a lot of work in a short time. work occurs when a force applied to something causes it to move. useful ...


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I think that Ingram Bywater penetrates quite accurately the sense of Aristotle's remarks here. The reference is to Poetics, IV, 1148b4 ff. Aristotle asserts that the birth of poetry generally was due to large natural causes. The origin of poetry generally (gennesai men holos) is atttributable to the imitative instinct in all men. The origin of the two ...


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This is a subtle point, and I'm a bit surprised that Aristotle didn't spend more time explaining it. Perhaps it merely seemed obvious to him, or perhaps it was part of a larger dialog in Greek philosophy that hasn't survived the test of time. At any rate, Aristotle is suggesting that we all naturally engage in mimesis: the imitative representation of things ...


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Although Aristotle's eudaimonia is often loosely translated as "happiness" the meaning is quite different from the modern, subjective and emotional, idea. Aristotle's eudaimonia is objective and teleological, the human happiness is in fulfilling the function of a human being, which is, to Aristotle, living life guided by reason according to virtue. This is ...


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It follows from how the formal semantics of the quantifiers and the connectives used with these quantifiers is defined. An existential statement There is a P which is Q is formalized as ∃x(P(x) ∧ Q(x)) A universal statement All P are Q is formalized as ∀x(P(x) → Q(x)) The semantics of the quantifiers themselves and the logical constants ∧ ...


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