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It is a virtue to be modest and yield an advantage for the benefit of another person, but that does not generally make it immoral to do the opposite, in fair completion for a positive gain. In specific situations, morals may however object. As an example, in economic egalitarianism it is immoral for the rich to use their power to become even richer. The ...


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One of the under-appreciated aspects of moral theory is that morality is rarely (if ever) determined by the specific outcome of an event. Morality is determined by the relationship between the participants. Consequentialism, deontology, virtue ethics, and pragmatism focus on different aspects of that relationship, but the relationship is always key. In other ...


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We know from the first formulation of the categorical imperative that acts of selfishness are prohibited. Were I to will that I not offer money to a beggar, it is possible to imagine a world in which the universal law is that everyone acts according to the own interest. This action is possible to conceive. However, this action is impossible to will, for ...


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"Once a man knows good from evil, nothing on earth can compel him to act against that knowledge.     -- Socrates    Assuming Socrates was right, the Moral Excellence is attained when the person achieves Full Rationality,¹ which means having a system of beliefs that Is reasonably comprehensive (its coverage) and deep (its resolution). The person ...


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As per Wiki's entry regarding the Law of identity, expressing it in a form like e.g. "Every A is A", it is not a propositional one (compare to LNC and LEM). It seems that there is no explicit statement of it in Aristotle; he used it only once, in Pr.An., Book B, Ch.22, 68a: ... and B is predicated both of itself and of C... In modern reading, ...


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Ɐx (x=x) is a statment in predicate logic, which extends propositional logic . A proposition is a truth valued variable. The symbol A in the law A v ~A represents a proposition. Where as the symbol a in the law Ɐa.(a=a), represents a variable (sometimes called an object, or entity), where as the equality symbol = is a relational operator, and the predicate a=...


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