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As a cell divides how can we affect the attribute of having a closed, independent circulatory system to the end product when it is not in the origin and was not introduced from outside at any given point? This is the fallacy of division, the idea that parts must share the attributes of the whole for no other reason than that of being its parts. In the form ...


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The Wikipedia entry is very, very bad: Wikipedia articles are based on formal (or popular) facts, even if they are contradictory. Anyway. Let me explain causality in terms of the General Systems Theory (GST). For references, you can check my last book; this is part of my current research. To start, the GST is scientific knowledge, which is based on ...


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It seems you're asking about what Thomists think about determinism vs. indeterminism, whether causes infallibly produce their effects—whether "physical laws" admit exceptions. A good overview of indeterminism is Thomist Charles de Koninck's "The Problem of Indeterminism" (1935) and "Reflections on the Problem of Indeterminism" (1937), pp. 357-442 of ...


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