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Welcome, Delforge Heraclitus and constant change - a vexed question THE thought of Heraclitus of Ephesus is still often summarized as " All things are flowing ", panta rhei; by which it is inferred that everything is in constant change. This summary goes back ultimately to Plato, who at Cratylus, 402a, wrote as follows: " Heraclitus says ...


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One can perhaps see the seed being planted in Aquinas' characterization of esse (existence) as "act of being", a new addition to the Aristotelian matter/form duality. In modern times the origins of the idea can be traced to Kant, who first elevated epistemology over ontology, and then emphasized the active role of the subject in shaping the former (...


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One line of thought here is that of existentialism. Philosophers from Aristotle to Aquinas and beyond have thought that there is a human essence, an essential human nature; and that actions flow from this nature. 'To be' a human being is 'to act' in certain characteristic ways and to have certain dispositions to act. Our essence is intrinsic to our existence;...


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Progress means: Movement to an improved or more developed state, or to a forward position. From this definition we can easily understand that since there is movement, 'Progress' is a subset of 'Change'. That means, for 'Progress' there must always be a 'Change'. And 'History' is (The study of or a record of) past events considered together, especially ...


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Which philosophers have proven existing is being part of the change in time? Coincidentally, I became interested in the work of Lee Smolin just last evening. A renowned theoretical physicist, he has made major contributions to the philosophy of physics. His areas of research includes cosmology. According to Wikipedia, in an article he wrote for Physics ...


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One of the strongest proponents of this idea (as far as I know) is Gottlob Fichte, who claims “[the intellect] has no being proper, no subsistence, for this is the result of an interaction and there is nothing either present or assumed with which the intellect could be set to interact. ... The intellect, for idealism, is an act, and absolutely ...


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St. Thomas defends "quidquid movetur ab alio movetur" ("whatever is moved is moved by another") in his commentary on the beginning of Aristotle Physics book 7: Then at (677 [=242a44]) he [i.e., Aristotle] proves directly that whatever is being moved is being moved by some other. This is his argument: Nothing that is being moved by itself rests from its ...


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No, it doesn’t seem to make sense to say that change is just what is changing. One way to see this, is that if change were just what is changing, there could be only one change per thing. Nothing could have changed more than once. Because, suppose a thing Th1 changed twice, the changes being Ch1 and Ch2. But change is just what is changing, and therefore ...


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The argument seems to be a variation of Parmenides's argument against change, especially the premise "ex nihilo nihil fit" that being ("B" in your example) cannot come from nothing (to which "A" was reduced): If a thing arrives at existence it comes either from being or from nothing. Now it cannot come from being (statue from existing statue). Still ...


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Fellow IBDP student here—presumably, this question has been asked in the context of the ToK essay? Henry F. Gilbert writes extensively on the subject (https://www.jstor.org/stable/737863), and argues that there is, in fact, progress in the arts, although it isn't in form, it's in the degree to which the artist expresses (him/her/them)self and mastery over ...


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Your question has puzzled writers for millennia; it is sometimes known as the Ship of Theseus or Theseus' Paradox. Plutarch has it thus in Vita Thesei, 22-23: The ship wherein Theseus and the youth of Athens returned had thirty oars, and was preserved by the Athenians down even to the time of Demetrius Phalereus, for they took away the old planks as they ...


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Buddhism can be described as defined by it's acceptance of change, called there anicca or impermanence, and considered within that body of thought one of the Three Marks of existence, a core inextricable quality of being which cannot be avoided or ended. Buddha was a contemporary or near-contemporary of Heraclitus. Buddhist thought avoids the problems of ...


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For my sins, I am a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, better known as the RSA. For the best part of three hundred years, this question has been one of its key preoccupations. There are probably more answers than there have ever been members. I will suggest here only that art is subjective, management and ...


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Even if we assume that B and C can (somehow) observer A while it's frozen, the argument doesn't hold if the A,B and C freeze a the same time, cause the moment they do they can no longer be unfrozen because they don't have any reference by which they measure how much time they has been frozen, because the measure of time (i.e the duration that change take) is ...


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Potentiality is not a substance. Substances are matter+form composites. As St. Thomas Aquinas writes in his short word On The Principles of Nature 5., everything which is in potency can be called matteromne quod est in potentia potest dici materia Matter is a mode of being midway between non-existence and substance.


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I'm not sure about the correct self-translation of the question, but I think it's about the variability of a person throughout his life. I believe that the physical Self =the Sum of the self, for a period of time from physical birth (inhalation) to (last exhalation) physical death, in a given environment, including social. As a result, the only I simply does ...


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This (maybe weirdly) made me think of Hamilton and Noether, and the physical notion of action (energy x time). In particular, many of the “general laws” of the universe are conservation principles, and follow from the notion of universal actions; for instance, if you want the laws to be the same in every direction, you need conservation of angular momentum; ...


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