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71

Circular reasoning doesn't "discredit" any point of view --if anything, it demonstrates internal consistency. However, it also doesn't provide any external support for a point of view. It has no legitimate force against anyone not already convinced of the conclusion. This is a structural issue entirely independent of the question of whether we're ...


15

I don't think this is an answer, but its a long series of comments. TLDR; there are many more considerations to the problem of evil than you seem to address. You've missed a key element of Leibniz's theodicy, and in a way that seems to grossly distort his thought. God creates the best of all possible worlds, yes, but this is not to say that there is some ...


10

Why not create a world with freedom of the will, but without suffering? This seems to allow two possibilities: No wrong choices are allowed. Wrong choices do not cause suffering. To assert 1. would threaten to deny freedom; one quick argument is that freedom to choose which ice cream flavor is not true freedom. I presume there are more advanced forms of ...


10

I do not remember any passage where Plato refers to the Jewish religion or to Jewish mythology. Sometimes Plato refers to myths he pretends to have heard from Egyptians and possibly he invented some myths by himself. E.g., he refers to the myth of Atlantis and he himself traveled to Italy and had contact with he school of Pythagoras and their myths of ...


9

I'm not sure how to give an exhaustive list of prominent philosophers who are also Christians, but some philosophers who come to mind are: Bas van Fraassen, Michael Dummett (recently deceased), William Alston (recently deceased), Alvin Plantinga, Peter van Inwagen, Marilyn Adams, Robert Adams, Robert Audi, Keith DeRose, Anthony Kenny, Alasdair MacIntyre, ...


7

You have lighted on the soteriological problem of evil (Gk σωτηρία = sōtēria = salvation). This is the evil supposedly inflicted on the innocent in an afterlife - innocent (a) because they have grown up without knowledge of Christ (say, they were pre-Christians) or innocent (b) because they have grown up uncritically but in good faith in another religion. ...


5

Taoism is quite different from christianity, specially in morality and ethics (i.e. considering what is right and what is wrong), since: In Taoism every concept appears immediately with their opposite. In christianity, there is God, and be apart from God. Most of the concepts in the Bible arise from the idea of being apart from God. An example of this is ...


5

The issue is you're approaching the problem in a different direction. The theodicy you lay out is derived from these premises: God is moral, and logically cannot be the source of evil Evil exists The only source of evil is free will Notice that the starting premise is that God is not evil. Anselm's ontological argument underlies this notion. If God were ...


5

Just to be clear from the outset, there is no instance of which I know where the Bible employs circular reasoning. There are plenty of examples of Christians misusing the Bible to employ circular reasoning (for instance the common employment of 2 Tim 3 to prove inerrancy), but in these cases it is the Christian misusing the Bible, and not a problem with the ...


5

A presence of circular reasoning does not automatically, or necessarily at all, discredit a publication. Circular reasoning may indicate a lack of external support for some argument expressed in a book but not necessarily so. The argument itself can however still be valid, even if the human individual expressing it fails to structure it properly. As to the ...


5

On religious views inconsistency is not necessarily a fault, after all God is supposed to surpass human reason and logic. And many paradoxical notions come from general monotheistic doctrines, like creation from nothing, omnipotence, omnibenevolence and omniscience, that Christianity and Islam share. Buddhism is different, although some versions of it can be ...


5

Hard deterninism “Physical determinism” (hereinafter “determinism” [or 'hard determinism' - GT]) is a partial and unprovable hypothesis about the history, present state, and future of physical bodies and force fields in the universe, including the physical aspects of mental states. The hypothesis is that every physical state of affairs at any ...


5

The passage is a bit difficult to follow and if memory serves there's quite a bit of literature out there trying to figure out exactly what the distinction between a knight of faith and knight of infinite resignation is. For de Silentio (who also claims to not understand faith), the crucial distinction is that the knight of infinite resignation gets to be a ...


5

God's attributes known negatively Following St. Damascene (De Fide Orth. i, 4), St. Thomas Aquinas writes (Summa Theologica I q. 2 a. 2 arg. 2): we cannot know in what God's essence consists, but solely in what it does not consist This is called apophatic theology; ἀποϕατικός = negative. This is the manner in which we know the divine attributes by ...


4

Edward Feser—most well-known for his The Last Superstition: A Refutation of the New Atheism, Aquinas: A Beginner's Guide, and Scholastic Metaphysics: A Contemporary Introduction*—is one of the most prominent contemporary Thomist philosophers. See also his excellent blog. *This last book is an excellent confrontation of Thomistic thought with modern, ...


4

Speaking from personal experience as a Christian with Taoist sympathies, although it's far from a mainstream line of thought in either Christian or Taoist circles, the cause of reconciling the two is well known, and has been taken up by a number of different thinkers. Part of the motivation may come from the fact that Taoism is largely non-theistic, which ...


4

At least one well-respected, contemporary scholar of the Hebrew Scriptures, Margaret Barker, argues that Plato knew of them, though she acknowledges her view as in the minority: The early apologists, both Jewish and Christian, maintained that Plato learned from Moses, that he was Moses speaking Attic Greek. The most notable of these was Eusebius of ...


4

There are no philosophical issues with a creation that cannot prove its creator per se. After all, we have theories that cannot prove their own consistency. Similarly a none measurable entity having measurable effects is entirely possible, since we already have non-measurable mental states that have measurable physical effects. The problem is one of ...


4

Nietzsche does not seem to rejoice in the reality of atheism in any of his works. He doesn't seem to regret it either (as it just is). As to nihilism, he saw it as a crisis, a crisis that must be overcome. As to Father Seraphim Rose, what he said about “true ‘existential’ atheism” might apply to Nietzsche as follows: Nietzsche had a burning hated for ...


4

I take this to be a question about the relation between two concepts and as such a properly philosophical question. An illuminating answer cannot be peeled from the pages of a dictionary. Providence On a Christian view, the sphere of providence is that of all the affairs and events of human life and the activity of (divine) providence is one of God's ...


4

This is what I call the "problem of specificity" as relates to Jesus Christ: Why born in Israel, why human, why male, why Jewish, why born around the year we now call 1 AD, and why living only 33 years? It doesn't seem to reconcile easily with more highly abstract and general philosophical notions of God, such as "the union of all perfections." But of ...


4

If you are asking about what happens during natural life on Earth, Christianity doesn't say that God's help means a person will be successful, wealthy, and at ease. On the contrary, Christianity's major founders all suffered very much for their faith during natural life on Earth. Christians believe that God will make perfect justice later. When they talk ...


4

You need to take what the Bible says in context. This is what Jesus Christ said: Judge not, that ye be not judged. 2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again. 3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own ...


4

Miracles and Providence in Christian theism As you are asking about Christianity, I think the first place to start is by noting that Christianity is explicitly opposed to Deism, the belief that God exists and created the world, but does not intervene or even really interact with it now. The god of Deism is unknown and unknowable, but the Christian God, ...


4

Here is Wikipedia's description of an argument from analogy: Argument from analogy is a special type of inductive argument, whereby perceived similarities are used as a basis to infer some further similarity that has yet to be observed. Analogical reasoning is one of the most common methods by which human beings attempt to understand the world and make ...


4

In a trial at the house of the high priest in Jerusalem, the gospel of Mark says: Then the high priest stood up . . . and asked Jesus, . . . ‘Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?’ ‘I am,’ said Jesus. ‘And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.’ The high priest tore ...


4

Eudaimonia, happiness, and well-being The standard definition of eudaimonia used to be that it denotes happiness. In recent decades a more satisfactory rendering has been found in notions such as those of well-being and human flourishing. These are far better than the older, 'happiness'. 'Happiness' suggests a merely pleasant and enjoyable state or ...


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