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The example with the bicycles would seem to fall into the category of survivorship bias (which can apply to more than just physical survival of people but also more general survival of data points past some selection filter that makes you more likely to come across some cases than others, see this xkcd comic for an illustration involving the issue of some ...


3

Bo Bennet lists a possible candidate fallacy for this situation of having no apparent option as There Is No Alternative: Discouraging critical thought by announcing that there is no realistic alternative to a given standpoint, status or action, ruling any and all other options irrelevant, or announcing that a decision has been made, and any further ...


2

Interesting question. Could Immanuel Kant be an example of confirmation bias? He was a Christian philosopher who is generally regarded as a moralist, not a utilitarian. (I think that's a fair statement; I haven't studied him in depth.) I just remembered that I upvoted PeterJ's answer, largely because of the last paragraph. However, I now see a problem in ...


2

All that follows from your not being able to find another explanation is - that you cannot find another explanation. There is no valid inference from 'I cannot think of another explanation of X than Y' to 'Y is true'. Y may be your your inference to the best explanation but such explanations are not necessarily true - they are only evidentially the best (...


1

The narrative fallacy The narrative fallacy involves selecting a sequence of events, say in a person's life or in the history of a nation, and reading cause and effect between events in the earlier part of the sequence and events in the later. One might, for instance, produce a narrative in which I grew up in the countryside, my parents were farmers, my ...


1

Semiotic theory of American philosopher and mathematician C.S. Peirce elaborates philosophy of index according to reference here: Peirce argued that logic is the formal study of signs in the broadest sense, not only signs that are artificial, linguistic, or symbolic, but also signs that are semblances or are indexical such as reactions. Peirce held that &...


1

Journalism and journalistic ethics is an interesting topic for philosophy, one that should be considered more. The propagandist attitudes of Hitler's & Stalin's regimes assumed that control of news was an essential function of the power of the state. That gave rise to samizdat media and literature, illegal radio stations and so on. Against a background ...


1

Is it sunk cost fallacy if it results in productive behavior? Whether something is a fallacy doesn't depend on behavior; it depends on the form of reasoning. "Is it the fallacy" and "is it an application of the fallacy" are two separate questions. Your title and the text of your request are actually two DIFFERENT questions that hinge on the ideas of ...


1

The basic concept as outlined is well-represented in philosophy, though no one I know of uses this particular terminology. 'Confirmation bias' is a modern term — mid-20th century — and is mostly used in psychology, with a few ports to the philosophy of science. But the idea that knowledge is built from imperfect structures is implicit at least back to Hegel (...


1

Does everybody have a bias? It's more accurate to say that everyone, without exception, has biases. From the WP article on bias: Bias is disproportionate weight in favor of or against an idea or thing, usually in a way that is closed-minded, prejudicial, or unfair. Let's start with your last question: Otherwise, with the opinions of others, is there ...


1

There are other reasons why the forum might be closed, and we can check them. Does the newspaper normally close down forums after a certain time? If so, has that time elapsed for that article? Did the discussion get so uncivil that the newspaper shut it down? We can see what was posted shortly before the shutdown. Did discussion just die out before the ...


1

Basically, her agument is that the lack of alternative claims for the evidence means that her claim - "Apparently the newspaper want to suppress public debate"- is true. She is logically flawed. "The forums on that newspaper article is closed. Apparently the newspaper want to suppress public debate." First, this is a faulty generalization: just because a ...


1

The forums on that newspaper article is closed. Apparently the newspaper want to suppress public debate. With these exact words, I'd vote for argument from ignorance and jumping to conclusions. Problem is the word "apparently" which implies a hypothesis instead of a conclusion, which means we have to go Bayesian and consider the probability P(E) of event E="...


1

You mention the argument from ignorance/silence as something that seems distinct and yet similar. Indeed it is similar, both in nature and in the sorts of things that determine whether it is a good (although typically** still not definitive) argument. For example, in the argument from silence the strength of the argument is increased as it becomes more ...


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