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10

I answer with the authority of being a native German speaker and having graduated in philosophy ;) Back-world is a bad translation here. Presumably, the translator has mistaken the term "Hinterweltler" as being a misspelling and semantically identical to the word "Hinterwäldler", which means backwoodsmen or hillbillies. The German original "Hinterwelt" ...


6

I don't think you can find a consistent distiction across philosophers. According to Frege (german logician, end of 19th century), ideas are mental images (psychological objects), concepts are objective. He speaks of "conceptual content" of a linguistic expression, meaning something that is communicable, i.e. intersubjective. See Begriffschrift (1879) or ...


6

I think you need to distinguish between "concepts" in general and the specific type of concept you raise here, models. Models are useful simplification of mechanisms. They are not "false," they just simply don't tell the whole story. Good models tell enough of the story, where what we mean by enough depends on the specific practical problem at hand. There's ...


5

Peirce was one of the first to invoke topology in his metaphysics. The notion of continuum and continuity is central to his account of the basic philosophical categories, and he was even led to study three-valued logic by topological considerations (status of points on the boundaries between regions). See Peirce’s Topological Concepts by Havenel: "Peirce ...


4

The 2nd law of thermodynamics is an assertion. It is a statement that someone made that they believe to be true. It is also an assertion that is backed by an enormous body of evidence so vast that the prevailing belief is that no counter example exists. We have never observed a closed system in which entropy does not increase, nor have we observed any ...


4

The missing piece for you seems to be the fact that Kant builds on the idea of "architectonic" borrowed from Aristotle, as he mentions in the paragraph following the first OP quote:"Borrowing a term of Aristotle, we shall call these concepts categories, our intention being originally the same as his, though widely diverging from it in its practical ...


3

If such a universal logical language exists, it would be subject to some very peculiar limitations which were developed by Alfred Tarski. His undefinability theorem puts some very interesting limitations on such a language. In particular he considered a language which: Is a formal language (its particularly hard to provide a concrete semantic model for ...


3

Ens rationis = a being of reason is a “thing dependent for its existence upon reason or thought.“ The term being of reason contrasts to the term real being (ens in re extra animam). But of course being of reason does not exclude real being: Two kinds of entia rationis are distinguished: those with a foundation in reality and those without one. The objects ...


3

In Boolean Logic, the answer is no. For any statement (A) in a set of possible statements (or propositions), there is exactly one unique opposite statement (¬A). There can be multiple distinct propositions B,C,D,....such that A ∧ B = FALSE, A ∧ C = FALSE, A ∧ D = FALSE. And there can be multiple distinct propositions I,J,K,...such that A ∨ I = TRUE, A ∨ ...


3

According to Priest, Routley and Norman's book Applications of Paraconsistent Logic the term "dialetheism" was coined by Graham Priest and Richard Routley in 1981. They cite Wittgenstein as inspiration who in Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics describes ‘This sentence is not true’ as a Janus-headed figure facing both truth and falsity. Di-aletheia is ...


3

Sin is defined as separating oneself from God. For a polytheistic religion, for example, sin would have to be defined differently.


3

Ideas is a term that goes back to Plato. For Plato, this is another word for the forms. I am not sure where the use of the term concept originates in philosophy; it's at least in Aristotle and Kant in different ways. I am not very familiar with Aristotle's usage, but you can read more at the SEP. For Kant, the concepts are the fundamental categories of ...


3

The concept of Concept is a very peculiar, basic and general category for Kant. And even more so for Hegel. The concept of Essence, for either Kant or Hegel, is by comparison standard, less basic and more specific. It is one (relatively basic) concept among many. Essence, for either Kant or Hegel, means roughly the same as it did for Aristotle. It is the ...


3

They're different but related. From the SEP entry on Hegel Like Kant, Hegel thinks that one's capacity to be “conscious” of some external object as something distinct from oneself requires the reflexivity of “self-consciousness,” that is, it requires one's awareness of oneself as a subject for whom something distinct, the object, is presented as known. ...


3

Repetition is a key concept for Kierkegaard, and he often uses it to depict a (generally vain) attempt to recapture an previous experience, typically one of aesthetic transcendence. As far as I know, Kierkegaard uses "remember" just in an ordinary sense, it's something you used to know that you can call back to mind, and he does superficially seem to use "...


3

Take inverse square laws. You can see them as mathematical or relying on logic, but they are geometrical and relational and just a part of the beingness of things. The ratios involved come from the conditions for there to be anything rather than nothing, we think. Vs infinity. A really useful mental tool, but which never exists in the world. Exactly ...


3

Hint You can consider the "classical" theory of concept, from Plato to Frege. See "On Concept and Object" (originally published as "Ueber Begriff und Gegenstand" (1892)) : the application of a concept can be completely specified by discovering a set of necessary and sufficient conditions that define the objects falling under the concept. These conditions ...


3

Nice question. Your textbox opens with what was going to be the first line of my answer! Take Russell's barber paradox about the town in which the barber is the "one who shaves all those, and those only, who do not shave themselves". The question is, does the barber shave himself? Plainly this is a proposition followed by an interrogative. It is not a ...


2

Success is simply the achievement of a set goal. If you set yourself a goal losing 10 pounds, and you lose 10 or more, that is considered a success. In biology, the primary goal of an organism is procreation. If the number of organisms increases, that organism was successful. If the goal is to reduce your carbon footprint, actually reducing your carbon ...


2

I agree with those who say the idea/concept distinction is not one that can be pinned down outside of a particular discourse (or even book). To give one example usage, Auxier and Herstein discuss the two terms in their book on Whitehead, The Quantum of Explanation. They point out that Whitehead differentiates between the order of ideas and the logic of ...


2

The historical notion of success derives from the desire for fame which was an eschatological response to the loss and replacement of transcendence or the divine ground as the ultimate orientation of the soul. In Plato’s book X of the Republic there is the Myth of Er which recounts the destiny and drama of the soul as an account of rewards and punishments ...


2

Sometimes it's clearer if you step back and try to understand exactly what you're asking. Let's break it down: Sx := x is a sin. Vxy := x violates y. Dx := x is divine law. Sx <-> (Vxy & Dy) which means that for all x, x is a sin if and only if there is some y such that y is a divine law and x violates y. What would then for there ...


2

The "foundations" of Frege's analysis of language are in his articles : Funktion und Begriff (1891) Über Sinn und Bedeutung (1892) Über Begriff und Gegenstand (1892). Relevant for your question is the first one; see : Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege (P.Geach & M.Black editors, 1952), page 21-on, or : ...


2

There's not much in this question that can't be answered by direct reference to the core definitions of the two terms: Empiricism: The theory that all knowledge is derived from sense-experience. (Google) Innatism: A philosophical doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge. (Wikipedia) If the mind comes into the world with knowledge, ...


2

It's been said that "colorless green ideas sleep furiously" but this is nonsensical - possibly poetic. Are Concepts Colorless? Yes, concepts have no color. It would be a category mistake to describe them as so, else it is poetry. Unlike color, which is prismatic range, concepts do not exist - they are only to be found in language. Is the list of all ...


2

Welcome to the fun of software engineering jargon! At work and play, I have run into the problem of shared terms a lot when it comes to designing software systems. Sorry if I don't answer your question properly, there seems to be a lot in it and I find it a bit nebulous. I'm going to answer the actual questions in the content with, "be careful and clarify ...


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