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More people should study basic AI. At its core AI consists of many nodes, the job of which is to sum numbers (typically a number between 0 and 1) from nodes connected to it, perform some function on them and pass on the result (0 to 1) to more nodes. The network is given inputs (say 64 0-1 values representing pixel brightness of an 8x8 image). The nodes ...


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When one would not have free will depends on one's view of free will. I will only consider a few of these positions. An easy position to consider is hard determinism. For such a person one does not have free will at any time. A naturallist perspective on reality would claim even one's thoughts are reducible to something else, perhaps something in the brain,...


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John R. Searle is a non-theist who believes in biological naturalism. Wikipedia describes Searle's position as: Searle denies Cartesian dualism, the idea that the mind is a separate kind of substance to the body, as this contradicts our entire understanding of physics, and unlike Descartes, he does not bring God into the problem. Indeed, Searle denies any ...


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TL;DR: Consciousness evolved over time and by degrees. We are only just beginning to understand how and when the various elements of consciousness emerged. First I will echo the comment by @Conifold: consciousness and instinct should be understood as two independent issues. However, they are also interrelated. The concept of "mere instinct" is a misleading ...


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I would say Dennett's explanation of consciousness as emerging from a personal narrative (if I remember correctly) is insufficient. He never adequately explains consciousness, in my view, because he is a dyed-in-the-wool materialist, and so is incapable of entertaining concepts necessary to understand and explain consciousness. In my view, to explain ...


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