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This is an interesting question (or cluster of related questions), because it highlights the complexity of understanding both what ethics is and how different approaches to ethics "work." First off, there aren't really "three branches of ethics". There's three main ways that some people have categorized approaches to ethics -- but it's not clear these are ...


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OB-RE: If p ↔ q is a theorem, then so is OBp ↔ OBq. In other words, if p and q have the same truth value in each world, and each model, then they're basically the same proposition, and so one is obligatory iff the other is. This holds in classical systems and almost characterizes them. Classical systems correspond to minimal models, those where what is ...


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I don't think your suggestion resolves the paradox. If you allow that do(x) entails do(x) or do(y), there remains the problem of explaining why you are not left with the option to do y. In ordinary English if Alice says to Bob, "Pay up or leave", we would understand this to mean that it is Bob's choice as to which he does. There does not seem to be any ...


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The issue arises if we consider imperatives, i.e. statements in the form : "Clean your room". In this case, the standard truth-functional accounts of connectives, that licenses inference patterns like disjunction introduction, seems at odds with natural language practice. This conclusion is consistent with the standard assumption of mathematical logic that ...


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This may superficially seem like a question of ethics --a moral commitment against racism as opposed to the practical value of profiling --but I think that both overstates the practicality of profiling, and understates the practical value of minimizing racial biases. If the suspects --or the guitars! --were arguments, what you are talking about would be the ...


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There is an article by Marcia Baron in which she rejects the view that 'consequentialism, virtue ethics, and Kantian ethics form three distinct and competing ethical theories'. While this does not imply that they are mutually reducible, it goes a long way to reconciling them. I am naturally unable to say whether this is the article to which you refer but it ...


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Freedom is a transcendental condition for the Categorical Imperative to be real. And the four different formulations mean exactly the same for him. I will argue how for Kant, the possibility of the experience of a categorical imperative presupposes freedom as necessary in his mature ethical system. Before that, the systematic relation between freedom and ...


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As Isaacson points out, Kant's moral system is very complex and, as such, focusing on a few aspects can lead us to lose sight of some other important aspects of his system. But your questions themselves can be answered straightforwardly. Your first question is how Kant can be consistent when he says that morality requires free will yet morally worthy act ...


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I'd say, yes, it would. If the maxim of this action were turned into a universal law — that is, if everybody started doing tours of countries with poor human rights records — the human rights records of those countries would likely improve.


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It is a common misconception that Kant's ethics are detached from human desires. A better summary, for your investigation, might be that Kant places an extra step between the "will" and the action (that step being the compliance with duty) and that in doing so he believes he has arrived a a small set of actions which must always be avoided regardless of the "...


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My understanding is that Kant would see the exercise of reason as an end in itself, and he would identify the exercise of reason as proof of one's autonomy - so Kant's morality is built on the idea that the exercise of reason should be protected, and people's capacity for the exercise of reason should be recognised, because in so doing what we are protecting ...


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There's several reasons to believe Kant would not include a duty to prevent another person's unethical actions OR consider preventing the action of another person in general moral First let's start with the distinction between these categories. Type 1 is whether this would fall under the required duties that arise out of the categorical imperative. While ...


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Essentially your argument relies of a definition of free will which is quite deterministic. Despite his objections to it in metaphysics, Kant's ethics have a distinctly dualist feel with regards to free will. Kant distinctly changes his views on free will throughout his works ending up in Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone basically just saying we ...


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Perhaps taking a Kantian angle on the golden rule would help. Kant's formulation of the categorical imperative has often been likened to a formalization of the golden rule. On a Kantian deontology, your deliberation would look something like this. I will act on the maxim that, when I know of a crime committed by a friend, I will not report that crime. Now ...


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Take it as a fairly simple test case in Kant. Could we universalize this? If everyone were responsible for ensuring others' morality you would end up with a degree of meddling that most folks could not wish for. (We already see how intolerable the culture's judgement of people's parenting is, and this would make everyone effectively the parent of everyone ...


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As a starting point, a system of AI morality would have to be deontological, because for it to be something you can implement as a program, it would have to be a clear cut set of rules, as opposed to a utility measure. Utilitarian ethics, even when applied to human situations, run into the difficulty of how to practically measure the utility of each ...


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Welcome Guilherme Penteado Normative ethics These ethical theories set out what (in their view) one ought to do or how one ought to be. I should say that very broadly there are three types of such ethics : Ethical theories that focus on results, on states of affairs to be achieved. The stress is on the best outcome, however assessed. Such theories are ...


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James Fieser divides the study of ethics into three subject areas: The field of ethics (or moral philosophy) involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. Philosophers today usually divide ethical theories into three general subject areas: metaethics, normative ethics, and applied ethics. Metaethics investigates ...


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Paul McNamara addresses Ross's paradox in deontic logic where there is an obligation operator, OB. His exposition may help explain why Ross's paradox appears paradoxical to some people even without that operator. Consider the example provided by the OP: Clean your room. Therefore, clean your room or burn your house down. McNamara used a similar ...


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There are a number of epistemological issues with Situation A. First, which specific group is "notorious for violent behavior and extremists beliefs"? In the US, profiling typically focuses on Muslim, Arab, or African-American men. But (again in the US) terrorist attacks by conservative white men were much more common than terrorist attacks by Muslims. ...


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Marcia Baron takes a deontological line, similar to Kant's but also critical of it, in THREE METHODS OF ETHICS: A DEBATE. By MARCIA W. BARON, PHILIP PETTIT, and MICHAEL SLOTE. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. Pp. vi, 285. Baron's own : Marcia W. Baron, Kantian Ethics Almost without Apology ISBN 10: 0801486041 / ISBN 13: 9780801486043 may be useful - she only ...


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To concentrate on 6 and 7, then. 7 first : the only consensus, or anything approaching a consensus, centres on there being three basic approaches in ethical theory : (1) the deontological, which is concerned with duty and with what is intrinsically right or wrong regardless of consequences; consequentialism, usually in the form of utilitarianism, which ...


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Technically, “deontological ethics” is just a meta-ethical classification for ethical theories that evaluate the morality of an action according to a general rule/rules. (Though it is often used to refer to Kantian ethics, in particular.) If “follow these rules” is one of the rules of the theory, then following the rules would be a moral duty. More ...


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First of all, there is a category error here, comparing utilitarianism -- an entire class of related forms of ethics, to Kantianism -- a very specific theory, is not possible. If one chose utility functions in such a way that autonomy was a highly valued form of pleasure and utilities topped out at a given level, you could pretty much achieve a form of ...


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This is a complex issue. I Just make a little sketch, since I am not certain what the core of your investigation is concerned with. If one asks in terms of moralitate (morality, as manifested by individuals), and sittlichkeit (formal and supposedly higher guidance), somehow, theoretical ethics, is very vexed. Since what is in power, in government practices,...


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I think you have dissolved your own dilemma ethically with the caveat "...not necessarily do serious injury or harm". I no longer see a problem with universalizing the rule here. If others were to attempt to enforce their versions of what is moral on me, but in a way that did not cause any serious injury or harm, I think that would be an imposition that I'd ...


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Let me slightly rephrase your question, for ease of writing: What should you do if you see twenty drowning children and you are wearing expensive shoes? Kantian Deontologist "Why save them of course!" I think Kant would have called this a no-brainer. Saving other people when there is no apparent risk to you (as in your person, not your belongings) is a ...


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It is difficult to place confucianism in either Virtue Ethics or Deontology, since in his teaching there is a high emphasis on both( Analects 5.7 & 14.17 ). Although trough my study and understanding of The Analects I believe that the answer is Virtue Ethics. Also the question you have asked , does suit Zilu specifically well : Analects 15.4. The ...


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Interesting question, I'm wondering in the same predicament. I have a few thinking points to offer: --Consequentialism v deontology = Do you want to bring about a certain future? Or, do you believe that it is better to be concerned only with a rule and not about the results? One underlying belief that underlies the decision between the two is whether or not ...


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It's asking the wrong question. Ethics is hard. It's very hard even for highly intelligent people with a generous amount of natural intelligence. And it's not something that you can "program into" a machine. Your only chance to create a truly ethical artificial intelligence is to make it intelligent enough to learn about ethics, and then to teach it. The ...


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