Your question falls apart with "you are free to choose whatever color you want,". This is basically an assumption of free will. You go on to point out all coloring schemes are constrained by your example to always have a blue or red triangle.
Such examples are endless. If you have five balls to put in six boxes you will always have a box without a ...
physicalism / existence monism;
free will can still be shown to exist. (Relaxing these constraints should preserve the conclusion, though this is left as an exercise for the reader.) The argument goes like this:
You have a brain.
The process going on in your brain is what makes you you.
The process going on ...
If the many worlds theory of quantum mechanics is true, then each possible timeline for the universe exists as a parallel world. Free will selects which parallel world you live in; but it is predetermined that world will exist.
"We could have free will. Yet we are also bound to causality which makes the world determined. There is no reason to believe that free will and determinism are mutually exclusive"
Good observation- At first it sounds like an outright contradiction in terms to place, free and determinism together. But Spinoza maintained that freedom and necessity ...
There is no short and easy answer which is uncontroversial. Metaphysical presumptions lead to different answers with different levels of sophistication of theory based on such perspectives as compatibilists and non-compatibilists and variants thereof. The nature of causality and events is also controversial.
Take a step back and ...
Once you be precise about what each of those terms mean, you would not be asking this question. Standard notions of determinism state that everything is determined, not just that some things are determined... For a better example than Ramsey's theorem, notice that whether you have free will or not, it always is the case in our world that something exists.