Bertrand Russell, Problems of Philosophy (NY: H.Holt & Co., 1912), p.131
If a man believes that the late Prime Minister’s name begins with the
letter B, he believes what is true, since the late Prime Minister was
Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman. But if he believes [we can add: for good
reason] that Mr. Balfour was the late Prime Minister, he will ...
The problem Gettier points out is not with "truth", but with the analysis of knowledge as justified true belief. After his paper it has become common to say that this analysis is traditional. It is perceptive of you to see the oddness in the story according to which Gettier undermined the traditional understanding of knowledge. Julien Dutant calls this story ...
However, I see that in the english speaking philosophical world, certainty is so to say absent from discussions regarding language. I cannot see where certainty can be found in the standard definition of knowledge as true justified belief. How to explain this?
I think that the theory of knowledge as justified true belief is typical of analytical philosophy, ...
At the root of all these asymmetries is the fact that not all relations are commutative/symmetric.
Here are some non-commutative/asymmetric relations involved in numbers
1: Factors ⇒ Product
2,3,6: Premises ⇒ Conclusion
4: Plaintext message ⇒ Encrypted message (even in symmetric cryptography)
5: Matter ⇒ Form
7: Logic ⇒ Math ⇒ Physics ⇒ Morality ⇒ ...
The question is
Is a proposition a priori if the premises require empirical evidence?
Jason S. Baehr describes a priori and a posteriori as "ways of knowing", but they can also be applied to propositions and arguments:
The a priori/a posteriori distinction is sometimes applied to things other than ways of knowing, for instance, to propositions and ...