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When a person is arguing some point of uncertain truth, and to justify his argument he says, "it's a fact that X," what he means is that he asserts X is true and also he considers the truth of X to be firmly supported. It may carry a connotation that his listener would be irrational not to accept X. The arguer would not say "it's a fact that ...


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We do not have too many original sources for Zeno of Sidon, most are cited in Sedley, Epicurus and the mathematicians of Cyzicus. But Proclus gives an extensive response to his critiques of Euclidean geometry in A commentary on the first book of Euclid's Elements, 214-218. Heath's comment is a close paraphrase of Proclus's: "Since some persons have ...


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One avenue to consider might be phenomenology. Phenomenology is the study of the nature of experience from the first-person point of view. It was first articulated by Husserl and was developed by Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. What distinguishes phenomenology from the objective or natural sciences is the emphasis on the first-person experience, whereas ...


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Naomi Oreskes' book Why Trust Science? gives an argument why (and under what conditions) we can accept a scientific consensus. In his paper "When is consensus knowledge based?", Boaz Miller argues "a consensus is likely to be knowledge based" when 3 conditions obtain: The Social Calibration Condition—all parties to the consensus are ...


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"Was the finding by Albert Einstein scientifically proven using the scientific method or not?" This assumes there is a single method, and that science proves things. All science is tentative, proof belongs to the realm of mathematics. Science is about evidence, which following various protocols can generally be agreed on. Then it is about which ...


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Subject traditionally means 2 things (1) subjectum praedicationis ( subject of predication) and ( 2) subjectum inhaesionis ( substratum in which modes, properties, acts inhere). Descartes argues that subject (1) = subject (2) = the thinking substance Locke accepts subject (1) , rejects subject (2) as substance but accepts it as "person" ( or ...


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It sounds like you're talking about "the exception proves the rule". This isn't really a fallacy, because pointing out exceptions to purportedly universal rules isn't a flaw of logical reasoning. I think it's important to distinguish between types of general claims here. Some general rules are not meant to universally applicable, but rather ...


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Ill-formed question. Theories cannot be scientifically proven: only facts sustained by theories can be. The scientific method allows validating a fact postulated by a theory. But there's no rule X to validate such theory itself. The scientific method proves facts predicted by theories, not theories as such. In addition, there would be no deeper rule to ...


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As far a science "proves" things yes it has, but as the previous answer said: science never puts things beyond doubt, it can only provide a theory that works in all tested circumstances. For example for a long time the Newtonian theory of gravity was widely believed, and it allowed us to expand our knowledge of the Universe substansially, because ...


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You need to get a hold of F.E. Peters book Greek Philosophical Terms: a historical lexicon. It traces the use of important words in Greek philosophy through the history of Greek writing, with detailed notes. He has several pages on each of the terms I will mention below, I'm just cherry picking what I hope is useful for you. Aristotle recognized several ...


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Aristotle Metaph X gives two relevant passages: (1053a31–5) We also speak of knowledge or sense perception as a measure of things for the same reason, καὶ τὴν ἐπιστήμην δὲ μέτρον τῶν πραγμάτων λέγομεν καὶ τὴν αἴσθησιν διὰ τὸ αὐτό, and a few pages later (1057a11) it happens that whereas all knowledge is knowable, the knowable is not always knowledge, ...


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This is essentially maximum likelihood estimation. If you replace your credence levels with probability distributions, finding truth values for your propositions that maximize the credence (subject to constraints) is equivalent to finding truth values for the propositions that maximize the joint likelihood. You may wish to look at energy based models.


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It is unlikely Descartes, Socrates, Hume or Popper - having strong perceptual foundations - would be taken in. However, figuring out human psychological 'defence' mechanisms helps if you have availability to information about them, the modern canons of which postdate all but Popper. Notably, splitting & projection and projective identification (...


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While he did not write specifically about television I highly suggest Guy Deboard's "The Society of the Spectacle". Marshall McLuhan was the man who coined the phrase, "The medium is the message". He believed that the medium of communication (television in this case) shaped the message being delivered. And so if you look into his writings ...


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