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To expand slightly on what Conifold mentioned, according to IEP the "modest foundationalism" has Alvin Platinga as a prime exponent; Wikipedia mostly covers that under "reformed epistemology" although it does say under "modest foundationalism" that: Reformed epistemology is a form of modest foundationalism which takes religious ...


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I think this SEP article does a decent job at that: Bonaventura (ca. 1217–1274), one of the most renowned theologians of the time, explicitly places emphasis on the sign's relation to the significate, claiming that … a sign has a twofold comparison: both to that which it signifies, and to that to which it signifies; and the first is essential and the ...


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Usually this is presented in a more elaborate fashion as: if we can make simulations this good already, a civilization thousands of years ahead of us is so much better at making simulations that we necessarily or possibly live in some such simulation of an advanced civilization. Post-human civilizations would have enough computing power to run hugely many ...


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In math axioms are usually belong to the most foundational level as inference rules of a deductive system. So in arithmetic, we need below axioms to derive your correct true proposition "2+2=4". Normally mathematicians won't treat a higher level non-simple relation such as "2+2=4" as an axiom in their theory, it should be more ...


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Inasmuch as the simulated reality in The Matrix was created by The Architect - an AI - the OP's question becomes one about AI singularity. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technological_singularity a hypothetical point in time at which technological growth becomes uncontrollable and irreversible Which doesn't suggest a convergence to a "quantity that may ...


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Experimental technique is a skill that can be taught, and a key part of the scientific method. While it is possible to design and execute an experiment according to these rules and then convince a scientist that you are performing an experiment, the level of proof depends on the skepticism of the beholder. If the beholder is not a scientist, no level of ...


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It's not clear from the q if you're making any distinction between knowledge and belief as modals. Assuming (e.g. based on your math SE questions) that this was some kind of homework/study/exam question, it was probably intended to use a [uni]modal logic in which these concepts are the same (K = B). In that you're asserting (for all p): T = ¬B¬Bp → B¬p (were ...


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As Tetlock says, having skin in the game is facilitative: more specifically, it adds a sense of salience and urgency. If someone has to decide whether to take a business trip, they will be more focused, attentive, and judicious with the question if they have to pay for the trip themselves than if the company pays for it. But like anything else, perspective ...


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