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Yes, axioms do exist. Underlying the processes of science are several philosophical assumptions--aka 'axioms' or 'first principles.' They are necessary for making any and all inferences from scientific data, and really, even for the application and method of science itself. We take them for granted--like most philosophy--and don't think about them much. They ...


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As Conifold points out, Descartes' use of 'a priori' doesn't fit with modern usage: Descartes' use of the term a priori here seems to correspond neither with the modern, post-Leibnizian sense (where a priori truths are those that are known independently of experience), nor with the medieval Thomist sense (where a priori reasoning is that which proceeds ...


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FORMAL FALLACIES Formal and informal fallacies are both persuasive forms of incorrect reasoning. Formal fallies are easy to identify because the structure of the formal language is what linguists called surface structure. For instance, a simple formal fallacy goes as such: P1 A implies B P2 B C Therefore A. If we want to see a natural language ...


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