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Objective Reality exists Absolutely. Regardless of your perception. If there is a democratic majority vote of 100% that gravity does not exist, will an apple fly upwards from a tree instead of fall? If you subjectively believe that objective reality does not exist, is this not an objective view of reality? Sometimes the answer to things is available only ...


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'I am curious about lines of thinking which look at epistemology through ontological lenses specifically.' Proposition 5 from Spinoza's "Ethics" Part 2, (below) needs a bit of transliterating, but does predate by over 300 years your assumption that your 'list' includes every ponderable concerning the origin and nature of epistemology in ontology. Spinoza's ...


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In your last sentence you seem to have found the heart of the matter: science can tell us things about things that can be completely unrelated to it. The epistemological limitation is a quality of that relationship, not of the object itself (an object that, like the potential simulation of this reality, can have ontological implications) - science does not ...


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We always have to keep in mind that science makes models of the universe. It does not 'prove' truths or facts or do anything of that nature. This is the case with mathematics as well, though it's harder to see because the things mathematics models are far more abstract; I'd even go so far as to say that modeling is the basic activity of reason. Science is ...


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Because, to my absolute surprise, no one has asked this question before, I would like to elaborate a bit and summarize the most well-known versions* of idealism, as well as popular protagonists of different views, for reference to other questions that may come. *David Chalmers, in one of his famous articles "Idealism and the mind-body problem", divides the ...


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It depends on whether or not the opinion is held by an expert or not. Many people and institutions recognize the idea that there is a property called expertise, and that includes jurisprudential reckoning which include expert witnesses. In philosophy the venues tend to be philosophical journals and commercial publishers. Obviously, were Willard V.O. Quine to ...


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It depends on how they are used. Their role may be to avoid, quite properly in some cases, the appearance of uncivil dogmatism. Another possibility is that given how in philosophy there are so many legitimately different lines to take - ideas and arguments which are neither uncontroversially obviously true or false, valid or invalid - that a phrase such as '...


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Your setup and experiment are analogous to the following more general scenario: Suppose you want to provide evidence for the claim that all As are Bs. To do so, you design an experiment that only ever looks at Bs, and willfully ignores anything that isn't a B. If you find a B that isn't an A, no big deal; this doesn't contradict your hypothesis that all As ...


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What is the justification for the claim that observing something that is neither a raven nor black increases the likelihood that all ravens are black? This isn't a formal answer, but it might help understand the reasoning behind the apparent paradox. Suppose you have a box that contains N birds, R of which are ravens, and B of which are black. You don't ...


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The question is given a positive, odd integer n can we check two things n is a raven number based on some effective method run by a machine n + 1 is a black number based on another effective method run by a machine and then claim, based on empirical testing of positive, odd integers up to 10 decimal digits, that the following is true for every positive, ...


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It is quite possible that connections between Hegel's Absolute Idealism and (some sense of) realism can be drawn out. But there is a fundamental divide between the two in the or a standard sense of 'realism'. It develops as follows. Realism in most forms assumes the existence of a mind-independent world of which we can have knowledge. So for realism, mind ...


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'Idealism' is a porous term and I don't think any hard and fast correct answer is possible to your question. Highly provisionally I offer the following response. Objective idealism Take 'idealism' to be the view that ultimate reality is non-physical. It is generally assumed, though I have reservations, that this implies that it is mental. Subjective ...


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According to WP, Hegel is a proponent of absolute idealism. To wit: It is Hegel's account of how being is ultimately comprehensible as an all-inclusive whole (das Absolute). Hegel asserted that in order for the thinking subject (human reason or consciousness) to be able to know its object (the world) at all, there must be in some sense an identity of ...


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"Infinite regress of causes and effects can't be real/ is illogical/impossible". Why assume it is impossible. (Reality doesn't have to appeal to our common sense) Why assume we understand what it actually IS as finite creatures. Why assume that it is the only alternative to "uncaused cause"? Maybe there are million other alternatives we can't ...


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An infinite regress is evidence that our thinking is incorrect. Such contradictions do not arise when our thinking is correct. They are found all over the metaphysics of our universities. They are not found at all in the philosophy of the Upanishads, which endorses a neutral global theory. Why this is not regarded as a vitally important issue I have no ...


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We don't We don't Why not? Okay, perhaps that was a bit pithy. There are indeed people who make these assumptions, and one can talk to their rationales if one pleases. There's a lot of people out there with a lot of opinions about what is going on. However, one can talk about the whole of philosophy, considering people who deviate from the "norm." ...


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No one sees, touches, hears, smells or tastes an electron. Things do not need to be evident to be empirical, they just need to ultimately have notable effects. The main problem with all of these things is not that they are not empirical, it is that the environment in which they are observed has an agenda contrary to being understood. If you ask me whether I ...


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Allow me to express a generally unpopular (but apropos) perspective... As I see it, the entire centuries-long empiricist/rationalist divide boils down to an attempt to legislate the scope and definition of the word 'empirical'. Science and philosophy are meant to deal with an obvious tension between two obvious points: We cannot deny that someone has an '...


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Empirical means an epistemological property of being of and/or derived from experience. Experience can be either the subjective (psychological states) or objective (experiment) kind, so non-empirical experience is an absurdity. To answer according to the spirit rather the letter; do inaccessible phenomena fall into the domain of science? Yes, science can ...


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I associate the term, 'properly basic belief', like Conifold, with Alvin Plantinga as its prime modern proponent. See for a start, see A. Plantinga, Warranted Christian Belief [WCB], Oxford: OUP, 2000: 81. So that we can be quite clear what we are talking about, let's characterise the idea of a properly basic belief. We need to distinguish it from any ...


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"Mathematicians wish to treat matters of perception mathematically, and make themselves ridiculous... the mind.. does it tacitly, naturally, and without technical rules." - Pascal, Pensées Big data and narrow AI have minimal impact on the underdetermination thesis. In effect, the computational practices are a natural extension of essentially well-understood ...


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Several responses to my question are technical and are only of interest to logicians, not the general public. I admit that in the serious analysis of important questions, strict definitions and rigorous application of agreed rules are important for accuracy. However, you can't convince Colin Hunt that God exists using the equations of quantum mechanics. ...


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Two concepts associated with economics, historical materialism and alienated labor, may have been new with Marx. Jonathan Wolff describes historical materialism as follows: Historical materialism — Marx’s theory of history — is centered around the idea that forms of society rise and fall as they further and then impede the development of human ...


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@speakpidgeon- Will add to the comments section in order to respond to your question concerning 'first principles'. But first, you asked to see what Spinoza has to say about knowledge, and so here are two Notes to Proposition XL Ethics Part 2- On the Nature and Origin of the Mind. "Nevertheless, in order not to omit anything necessary to be known, I will ...


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I wish people would remember that Marx was not opposed to the principles of capitalism per se — which he saw as a natural and inevitable aspect of the division of labor under conditions of mass production — but objected to class-based capitalism. Class-based capitalism is problematic for moral reasons, because it creates classes of human beings who are ...


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The authors, Jeff Landauer and Joseph Rowlands, claim that "Existence Exists", that is, "there is something, as opposed to nothing", is an example of something "we cannot disprove by any other statement". They call this an axiom and note the following about axioms: A true axiom can not be refuted because the act of trying to refute it requires that very ...


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Consider this: let's imagine the hot dog stand makes enough revenue to feed 2 people. The hot dog stand owner can now hire an employee to do his job. The employee works 8 hours a day to make his living, and the owner spends 1 hour a day making sure the employee does not slack or embezzle money, but makes the same revenue with the difference between what the ...


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There is no single and clear definition of God. But typically we can say that every concept of God agrees that God is a power with intelligence and decision making ability to influence any event in the universe. I would suggest that we can further divide above definition in clear separate points: 1. Power 2. Intelligence 3. Influence any event that will ...


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