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Ill-formed question. Theories cannot be scientifically proven: only facts sustained by theories can be. The scientific method allows validating a fact postulated by a theory. But there's no rule X to validate such theory itself. The scientific method proves facts predicted by theories, not theories as such. In addition, there would be no deeper rule to ...


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As far a science "proves" things yes it has, but as the previous answer said: science never puts things beyond doubt, it can only provide a theory that works in all tested circumstances. For example for a long time the Newtonian theory of gravity was widely believed, and it allowed us to expand our knowledge of the Universe substansially, because ...


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"Was the finding by Albert Einstein scientifically proven using the scientific method or not?" This assumes there is a single method, and that science proves things. All science is tentative, proof belongs to the realm of mathematics. Science is about evidence, which following various protocols can generally be agreed on. Then it is about which ...


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You need to get a hold of F.E. Peters book Greek Philosophical Terms: a historical lexicon. It traces the use of important words in Greek philosophy through the history of Greek writing, with detailed notes. He has several pages on each of the terms I will mention below, I'm just cherry picking what I hope is useful for you. Aristotle recognized several ...


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Aristotle Metaph X gives two relevant passages: (1053a31–5) We also speak of knowledge or sense perception as a measure of things for the same reason, καὶ τὴν ἐπιστήμην δὲ μέτρον τῶν πραγμάτων λέγομεν καὶ τὴν αἴσθησιν διὰ τὸ αὐτό, and a few pages later (1057a11) it happens that whereas all knowledge is knowable, the knowable is not always knowledge, ...


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We do not have too many original sources for Zeno of Sidon, most are cited in Sedley, Epicurus and the mathematicians of Cyzicus. But Proclus gives an extensive response to his critiques of Euclidean geometry in A commentary on the first book of Euclid's Elements, 214-218. Heath's comment is a close paraphrase of Proclus's: "Since some persons have ...


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This is essentially maximum likelihood estimation. If you replace your credence levels with probability distributions, finding truth values for your propositions that maximize the credence (subject to constraints) is equivalent to finding truth values for the propositions that maximize the joint likelihood. You may wish to look at energy based models.


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When a person is arguing some point of uncertain truth, and to justify his argument he says, "it's a fact that X," what he means is that he asserts X is true and also he considers the truth of X to be firmly supported. It may carry a connotation that his listener would be irrational not to accept X. The arguer would not say "it's a fact that ...


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To begin, we should be wary of the fact that the term 'knowledge' is used in different ways in colloquial speech, and is often the focus of highly contested political issues. 'Knowing' (in the understanding of the lay public) invokes existential security: to know something is to have a solid foundation on which further human action can rest. In the absence ...


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Not a rebuttal, because solipsism is unfalsifiable anyway, but in On Certainty, Wittgenstein shows that in order to survive solipcists have to act hypocritically. Although they will profess they have their own reality or they even just dreamed you and every other people around them, they won't act like it is true. They will continue looking for food, friends,...


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You don't really need to know where your sensations come from. You still know they exist. Solipsism is partly true in the sense that many of your sensations (colour, false memories etc) are invented. From Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Harry: "Is this real? Or has this been happening inside my head?" Dumbledore: "Of course it is ...


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Naomi Oreskes' book Why Trust Science? gives an argument why (and under what conditions) we can accept a scientific consensus. In his paper "When is consensus knowledge based?", Boaz Miller argues "a consensus is likely to be knowledge based" when 3 conditions obtain: The Social Calibration Condition—all parties to the consensus are ...


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Subject traditionally means 2 things (1) subjectum praedicationis ( subject of predication) and ( 2) subjectum inhaesionis ( substratum in which modes, properties, acts inhere). Descartes argues that subject (1) = subject (2) = the thinking substance Locke accepts subject (1) , rejects subject (2) as substance but accepts it as "person" ( or ...


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Litterally a tautology is an "auto -logy", that is a sentence in which the same ( auto-) is said ( -logy) of the same. In other words, a tautology is an " identical proposition" as said Leibniz ( either an actually identical one, such as "Theft is theft" or virtually identical one, such as 2+2 = 4 , which can be reduced, by ...


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It is unlikely Descartes, Socrates, Hume or Popper - having strong perceptual foundations - would be taken in. However, figuring out human psychological 'defence' mechanisms helps if you have availability to information about them, the modern canons of which postdate all but Popper. Notably, splitting & projection and projective identification (...


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Yes, of course "truths" and orthodoxies and certainties can be explored by "other methods" and have been for millennia. They can be explored by dialectic in the Socratic manner, by inward investigation in the Zen manner, by interpretation in the Hermeneutical manner, or by external examination in the manner of the Catholic Inquisition. ...


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Definitions if science are similar to this: the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. So these are truths about the physical and natural world today. One limitation is that we cannot observed things that happened in the past (...


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One avenue to consider might be phenomenology. Phenomenology is the study of the nature of experience from the first-person point of view. It was first articulated by Husserl and was developed by Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. What distinguishes phenomenology from the objective or natural sciences is the emphasis on the first-person experience, whereas ...


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Firstly, the word 'tautology' has a somewhat different meaning in logic from the way it is used in ordinary English. Its common meaning refers to a needless repetition of words in a sentence, such as "completely unique", or, "4 p.m. in the afternoon". In logic, it refers to a sentence that naively speaking comes out true always and ...


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All tautologies are a priori truths, but not all a priori truths are tautologies. For example the ontological argument for God's existence was considered an a prior proof by Anselm and Clarke but few people today would call it a tautology. A second historical example comes from metaphysics which has considered the principle of cause and effect to be an a ...


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"From a technical standpoint, one of the most important features of language is that its study is necessarily self-referential." -- Christopher Langan, "The Metaformal System..." Obviously, language cannot described through the language itself. That, cannot be a problem simply because we don't describe the language! It's the other way ...


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We can only argue from subjective premises, as is apparent in the principle of logical argument. But this is not a problem for logic itself. Rather, logic is the solution. It is the solution to our human nature whereby we only know the values processed by our cognitive system, values presumably concerning the real world, rather than the real world itself. As ...


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This is one of the horns of Munchausens trilemma. I would follow Hofstadter idea of 'tangled hierarchies' & strange loops, to say language and logic are systems within a looping hierarchy, with niether a fundamental grounding nor end point or final conclusions (final vocabulary). Instead, the whole system of system is verified by self-coherence, in ...


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Short Answer Who was the first to define scientific theories as sets of statements or propositions? Such artificial definitions of scientific practice may be a relatively recent phenomenon going back to the beginning of the 20th century, and as such, there may be no publication of such a definition per se, but is understood implicitly since pre-Socratic ...


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There is a well known modal fallacy regarding knowledge which says that if some subject s knows that p, then p cannot be false, and therefore , p is a necessarily true proposition. Well, there is a well-known syllogism, called "hypothetical syllogism", and we can apply it to solve this question: If S knows that p, then p is true; If p is true, ...


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