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I have already given my views on change and progress in the area of history and natural science here: How can we differentiate between change and progress in the area of history and natural sciences? I don't wish to repeat the same ideas here. So please read it. ========================================================================= Moral (adj.): Relating ...


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Yes, it is an infinite regression, and insoluble down that pathway. As Bumble said, it is called the ‘Two Generals Problem.‘ Reality, however is not like that: We happily bypass the problem thanks to selected ‘coincidence’ and survival bias. (Natural selection). The Two Generals in question attack the enemy separately in every possible manner, but in ...


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Once again to Hallett, here his explanation as to why the phenomenal world while useful because it forms the basis of everyday experience of the sensible world, does not serve to adequately capture anything other than itself, which ultimately renders it useless in the search for scientific certainty. Bear in mind the point here is not to question the work of ...


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It's true and an inescapable fact that all our perceptions of things are just representations of those things, not those very things themselves. This is because we cannot perceive things directly but through our nervous system, from various sensory receptors to primary sensory areas to the final perception areas. What we perceive are thus what the nervous ...


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Consider two options. Option 1: the objective reality exists. In this case, whatever veneer or facade or phantasm our experience and apperception might be, they should provide us with at least some way of deducing the nature of this reality. Like, you know, the ability to figure out which animals you may objectively hunt and eat, and which ones make the ...


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This is a question which has a lot potential ways it can be answered. To say that X or y exists is often to be taken as a brute fact of the ability of something to be conceived. If I can conceive of objectivity or pegasus or santa, then in some very minimal sense they have primitive "existence." There is a view connected to this called possibilism ...


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In particular, there is no "mainstream media" monolith, just as there is no monolithic Islam or monolithic Christianity or... As for vaccines, first, the general idea is brilliant, lifehacking our immune system basically. No doubt it could be harmful to some. But just because some are allergic to peanuts doesn't mean peanut companies are secretly ...


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Not really. You have P(Miracle occurred) = 0.8 P(supernatural exists | Miracle occurred) = 1 (because you said a miracle can only happen if the supernatural exists) P(supernatural exists | No Miracle occurred) = 0.25 (that no miracle occured doesn't give new information, I'd argue? Nothing interesting happened, so you take your prior assumption of 25% that ...


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I agree with @SonOfThought's initial statement that, Progress means: Movement to an improved or more developed state, or to a forward position. From this definition we can easily understand that since there is movement, 'Progress' is a subset of 'Change'. That means, for 'Progress' there must always be a 'Change'. To the extent that I believe 'progress' is ...


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Regarding change: Although change seems an exceptional behavior in nature, while statism is the rule, the fact is that change is permanent and statism is not even possible in nature. Change is the subjective perception of difference. It is perception that makes something static, whilst such is just an illusion. Seeing the same river as before (or the same ...


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The statue is essentially whatever we see as the statue. The lumps of clay are essentially what we see as the lumps of clay. Thus, the idea that the statue is made of the lumps of clay is essentially an idea, our idea. If I see something as a statue, I will believe I speak the truth if I say "There is a statue". Hence, our view of truth as ...


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Every false statement corresponds to a fact that the statement is false. More precisely, the concept of falsity depends on a prior concept of truth (false = antitrue, but to make truth into mere antifalsity would be metaphysically confused). Axiologically, goodness is similar to truth, and evil to falsity (not just the absence of good, but its opposite). So ...


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The short answer from a naturalized epistemology is obvious. Truth in the state of affairs of the physical world has survival value and is a strategy for biological organisms with cognition to survive in accordance with evolution. The obvious proof of this would be what I call argument by defenestration. If you want to know what a person believes, ask them ...


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U can't really reason or understand or define about an unknown thing or known thing using false statement can you? Even when using proof by contraction u are still trying to validate a truth statement, people value truth more cause truths work like staircase, you proof step 1 then you can further proofs things in that staircase, like maths uses this ...


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Progress means: Movement to an improved or more developed state, or to a forward position. From this definition we can easily understand that since there is movement, 'Progress' is a subset of 'Change'. That means, for 'Progress' there must always be a 'Change'. And 'History' is (The study of or a record of) past events considered together, especially ...


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I would say that Change is a very broad word, but any change that happens produces information in a universal system which means that the system as a whole is progressing. Progress in other hand is more appropriate in this because in a human society (cultural perspective) we could have destructive changes but not destructive progress. When we say ethics ...


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Imagine two books, one which is a list of noun phrases, the other a list of sentences using those nouns. E.g., Horse, moon, jumping, avocados, the prime number the horse thought of, the prime number that comes after the other... The horse is jumping over the moon, counting the number of avocados it sees, which is the prime number before 23. As per Quine, if ...


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The point of "the world is the totality of facts, not of things" is exactly that facts are over and above things, the result of human mind interacting with things, logical atoms being the smallest units of such interaction. In other words, he is making the same point as the OP, see Wittgenstein on facts and objects: the metaphysics oftheTractatus ...


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(Edit note: From the comments I’ve received, it seems that the paragraph beginning with “On the other hand” was not clear enough and can be misunderstood, so I add some clarifying sentences at the end of the paragraph – they are the italic sentences after (5).) Q (the original question): Which aspects of consciousness are philosophically most important? A: ...


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This may be sketchy as to how it relates to consciousness, since it is arguably unconscious, but it shouldn't be overlooked... From Thomas Sheehan: 3. Human being is the world of meaning. Heidegger argues that we primarily live in the world of meaning – in fact, we are that world, the realm of meaningfulness. What Aristotle called mind or reason (nous, ...


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PS Here in this answer I used a special type of reasoning (I don't know whether you'd agree or not). Since consciousness is a special case, 'A' is considered as an inseparable combination of 'B', 'C' & 'D'. So I treated each two of 'B', 'C' & 'D' as the part of the other. If spiritual leaders can also be treated as philosophers of mind, I wish to ...


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Different philosophers claim slightly different views the only thing they really agree on is that we do indeed experience consciousness. Some say that it arises from the brain because there are many millions of neurons firing . Other say that it is emergent from our fear of death or the fact that we have language. I personally believe that it is impart due ...


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