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7

Narrowly construed the OP question is easy to answer and is not really philosophical, it concerns the colloquial semantics of "put X on Y". According to which, whatever goes on top or on the surface is X, and whatever is underneath or in the middle is Y. Given the traditional ways of applying mayo it will be mayo that is put on the eggs. However, if an ...


7

One should keep in mind two points. First, historical materialism in its traditional form is later Marx, taking final shape in Das Kapital, the theory of alienation is young Hegelian Marx of 1844 Manuscripts, and the "species-essence" is borrowed from his left Hegelian predecessor, Feuerbach. In 1845 Theses On Feuerbach Marx reinterprets him in the general ...


4

Isn't gender a property of the body rather than an attribute of each being? If so, gender is tied to existence. Does my question emerge from a misconception? According to the Pope, gender is not an accidental property of the body, but an essential attribute of each being; that's his point. He's arguing that God creates souls as essentially gendered, and ...


4

See Spinoza's Theory of Attributes and Spinoza's Modal Metaphysics. Spinoza defines the term “attribute” thus: “By attribute I understand what the intellect perceives of substance as constituting its essence” (Ethics, 1D4). This definition is reminiscent of Descartes' notion of attributes as it appears in the Principle of Philosophy insofar as attributes ...


4

Merleau-Ponty is a phenomenologist so his received view is "essence" in a Husserlian sense, as the ideal core of an intentional object, see What does Husserl mean by essences? However, he is also an existentialist, so Husserl's essentialism is revised along the lines of "existence precedes essence", see Bauer's Phenomenology of the Essence and Appearance in ...


4

To understand how Sartre could ever say something like this, we need to look at an important pair of German philosophers and one Dane (actually we could probably find many more important people in this transition) and their effect on how we think. I assume by classical definition of essence with reference to Aristotle, you're thinking that each natural kind ...


3

According to Sartre, humans are the only beings that don't have an essence It is an imprecise, maybe wrong statement, Sartre never said that. For Sartre, humans are devoid of (contact with) Being, not of essence. Being (= the being-in-itself) and Consciousness (= the being-for-itself) can never touch/affect each other, because the former is the complete ...


3

One could argue for essences along the following line: Consider a well-designed hammer and screwdriver. Each of them is perfectly fit for its own respective job. Next, join the two tools into one: a hammer-screwdriver. This new "tool" is a kind of misfit. It does not perfectly fit any job. What is the essence of the hammer-screwdriver? Is it a hammer? A ...


2

Spinoza's treatment of cosmology and theology is unique in the philosophical tradition. It is certainly true that God plays an essential role throughout Spinoza's thought. He always appears, however, in the very strange form signaled by Spinoza's recurrent phrase, "God, or nature." For Spinoza, only what is capable of independent being and cognition counts ...


2

Living our lives requires very little faith these days. Life just isn't that dangerous. Sensory input is reliable. Life expectancies reach into the 8th decade. Cats provide feedback about whether they like to be petted, and if you make a mistake the consequences are minor (maybe a scratch). Airplane crash statistics are readily available, as are the ...


2

Epistemology, as systematic reflection on knowledge, is traced back to Aristotle who was the first to discourse explicitly about logic, e.g. how some true propositions are obtained from others and cases where it is not so. Gaining epistemological awareness is much like becoming aware of grammar: people can talk and they know lots of things without any '...


2

It depends on how you did it. If you had eggs on your plate and then dumped usage of some mayo on top of them then it's "you put mayo on your eggs". If you had some mayo on your plate and dropped the eggs on top of them then "you put eggs on your mayo." Doubtless you meant something other than this but used very casual language to express it.(Someone might ...


1

Ethics Part 1- Definition 7- "By eternity, I mean existence itself, in so far as it is conceived to follow solely from the definition of that which is eternal." Explanation- "Existence of this kind is conceived as an eternal truth, like the essence of a thing, and, therefore, cannot be explained by means of continuance or time, though ...


1

No, except if you are willing to apply some twists to his writings. From late antiquity scholastics adopted a distinction between "perpetuity" and "eternity"; much has been written on the topic but there are good introductions to the topic e.g. Siniossoglou (2005) Time, Perpetuity and Eternity in Late Antique Platonism. Roughly put &...


1

I agree with Conifold in that the key to this apparent contradiction is in the Fifth Thesis on Feuerbach: "Feuerbach resolves the religious essence into the human essence. But the human essence is no abstraction inherent in each single individual. In its reality it is the ensemble of the social relations". To Marx, the "species-being" of humans is ...


1

It is reffered to the concept of epistemic violence put forward by foucault. You violate agents who are irreductibly heterogeneous by amassing them all under a category such as "black". It was fairly useful for post-colonialist philosophers to dismantle the ideas created by european intellectuals about the so called third world. For example, the very ...


1

I am responding in a general way to your question and subsequent comments. Though I am not sure how well defined "complexity" and "systems theory" really are, one philosopher who may interest you is Nicholas Luhmann. He develops a "systems-based" ontology in which his fundamental terms are System/Environment. He employs this largely in descriptions of social ...


1

As I now understand your comments your intention is to consider philosophy as a whole and to investigate the characteristics of this discipline. Such enterprise belongs to the domain of philosophy of science. I would break down your original question about the essence of philosophy into the following subitems: What are main questions philosophers deal ...


1

Firstly, Complexity means approaching a problem from a higher-level (i.e. higher-order) perspective, much like economists look at the economy: detached and analytical. Unfortunately, it's prone to the same problems of that field -- excessive application of purely mental modes of understanding. Secondly, Complexity expresses an interest of how complexity ...


1

Existence precedes essence means human beings are not defined by an a priori nature. Rather, what's fundamental about us is that we exist. This stands in contrast to traditional philosophies and theologies which claimed people had an essence (e.g. man is a reasoning animal, man has a divine spark, etc...). Bare existence lacks meaning, as such we are ...


1

For what it is worth. Non-reductionist modern philosophy rejects essence as non-existent, by focusing on different aspects.


1

I believe "substance" and "essence" in the sense of the old philosophers and "existence" in the sense of modern physics are concepts from different worlds of thought, which are not compatible. When particle physicists say that a certain particle "exists", they mean: we can prove statistically that there is (with a certainty of 99.x%), this and that ...


1

Inspired to post my answer after I read Moziburs: If whatever is essential is also necessary: No, electrons dont exist necessarily. There is a possible world consisting only of gunk, no electron is member of the world (see Ted Sider: Van Inwagen and the Possibility of Gunk). For more gunk, see SEP on Monism. Reading essential as fundamental, according to ...


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