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The main reason which justifies punishment of evolved behaviours, is to impose a fitness cost upon harmful behaviours. It matters not whether the person is blameworthy for having been bestowed with such behaviour, or even whether they can change it under their own will. The behaviour will be under pressure to change and be weeded out simply by imposing the ...


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The logical flaw in justifying someone's accidental death in view of their troubled past is the non-sequitur. It's like saying they deserved to die because penguins live in the Antarctic; there is no logical connection between the two events.


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Yes Academia.com allows you to submit what appears to be papers but they don't have to be published. You can submit published ones also. You make a profile for yourself.


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We can know understand right from wrong the same way we understand anything else -- by coming up with a mental model for it. And in general, that model is as simple as "act in the best interests of others". It is just as obvious, however, that no one can be comfortable using it until they achieve a sufficiently deep understanding of themselves, ...


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Don't need to go far to describe the problem, which is purely conceptual. A fact is an observation performed in the past (or the present, which is just our short-term memory, that is, a recent past). Not in the future. A situation that will occur in the future can never be a fact, including the sun coming out tomorrow. It is highly probable, but it is not ...


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By definition, it is either true now or it is false now that the slide will be finished tomorrow. The fact that something is true doesn't imply that we know it is true. A fact is a state of affairs we know to be the case. It is certainly not the case that anyone would know for a fact that some slide will be finished tomorrow. We don't even know that there ...


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No, person B is stating a future contingent until the truth is actually determined. Some other statements about the future might arguably be facts though, like "the sun will rise at such time tomorrow". If person B says "I want to finish my slide tonight" that can be a fact, if it is actually true. What matters is if it's true or not. ...


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In all viable moral frameworks for everyday situations (that I can think of) a moral obligation is to be accountable for ones actions. And part of accountability is to create the necessary transparency, and acceptance of adequate consequences. In your special case the main question is whether you created a situation of insufficient transparency. Given that ...


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'It seems to me that if everyone refused to say when a monogamous relationship was over, refused to tell someone of their affairs, and so on, then no monogamous relationships could exist.' I don't see that the conclusion follows, because it takes no account of monogamous relationships that persist and are not over. 'If relationships of these sorts were never ...


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Many genes need to meet with the correct environment. FoxP2, 'the language gene', is known to trigger babbling during development. In wild cockatiels individuals may be assigned names, and have emergency calls, and flock calls that build cohesion and call to roost. But raised by humans, they mimic human speech & music. Like this. Gene and behaviour, in ...


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Why did Aristotle claim we can't wish our friends be gods? Because we'd thereby lose a great good. Aristotle himself (Ethics bk. 8 ch. 7) poses the objection: From this a doubt arises that men do not perhaps wish their friends the greatest goods, for example, that they become gods; for then the friends will not benefit them. ὅθεν καὶ ἀπορεῖται, μή ποτ' οὐ ...


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Welcome, John Beverley. You raise interesting points about a relatively neglected area of Aristotle’s ethics. First there is in VIII.7 the question of wishing the best – the greatest good - for one’s friend. The paradox is that what would be best is for the friend to become a god but his/ her becoming a god would end the friendship because, while ...


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