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Yes. We may suppose that the higher moral intelligence knows what is right and says so. (Otherwise, the premise that it is a higher moral intelligence is not met.) Do you have a moral duty to do what is right? If so, then you have a moral duty to do what the higher intelligence says is right, because that is the same as what is right. Let us not ignore the ...


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Every sensible system of ethics accepts trade-offs between present value and future value The use of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in medical research involves a trade-off between gathering useful medical information for the future versus optimising an outcome for a present set of patients. If we encounter a situation where we have some a priori ...


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placebos must be used in clinical trials because the placebo effect is so strong in humans. Presently, standard practice in a placebo-controlled clinical study of a drug being considered for a life-threatening disease is to abort the trial as soon as the initial data comes in that proves the efficacy of the agent being tested, and immediately administer the ...


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I don't know about well-known papers but briefly, here's my take on it. Education in general is defined as a universal human right under Article 2 of the Human Rights Act, which states that it should be denied to no-one under any circumstances. The difficulty, of course, is in how you define education. If we live in a society where the best jobs -- and thus ...


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The essence of moral agency is the capacity to make choices. If we allow someone else to make decisions for us — no matter how wise or intelligent they/it may be — then we sacrifice all moral agency and become (effectively) animals under someone else's control. As human beings, we have a moral obligation to make wise choices. It's one of those cases where it'...


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One perhaps obvious argument would be executive efficiency, which is essentially the cause behind using heuristics in general. A system, whether a single brain or a whole society, which has substantially limited executive capacity or otherwise which requires fast turnover, could easily benefit from using heuristics such as simple, absolute rules. The result ...


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I've been told absolutist morality is lazy In a way that makes sense. I suppose arguments for absolutism hinge on our intuitive beliefs that some things are immoral independent of any states of affairs, as well as problems with moral relativism: a metaethical thesis that the truth or justification of moral judgments is not absolute, but relative to the ...


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Moral values are not to be kept in the brain, but to be put into practice. Therefore, when they are implemented, there is a great possibility of deviating from its true path if they stem from inference beyond one's mental capacity. This definitely becomes disappointing. This is what is happening in the case of religions with strict rules and regulations. ...


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Argument from authority has a different status in different traditions. Usually frowned upon (maybe not in 'miracles', reliable testimony etc.), but I believe it's said to be sound in Buddhism. A different sort of challenge to the claim that the Buddha valued philosophical rationality for its own sake comes from the role played by authority in Buddhist ...


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The classic experiment illustrating such situations is the Milgram Experiment where subjects were told by someone with apparent scientific "authority" to punish other people with electric shocks. Nevertheless i would argue that in those situations where it matters, the answer is not as easy as saying that we are fully responsible for our own ...


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I think the answer is that it is appropriate to judge the morality/immorality of the action from the point of view of the knowledge/intention of the actor. This is why we use the concept of mens rea in criminal law, and why we generally treat accidents that cause harm as not being immoral (so long as the person was not grossly negligent). Similarly, it ...


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What you are talking about relates to moral luck: Driver A, in a moment of inattention, runs a red light as a child is crossing the street. Driver A tries to avoid hitting the child but fails and the child dies. Driver B also runs a red light, but no one is crossing and only gets a traffic ticket. If a bystander is asked to morally evaluate Drivers A and B,...


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Please do not spread fake information about development of drugs and vaccines. "Few people seem to be bothered by this, ..." - The medical staff involved in drug trials are very concerned about this. "And we only know that because we let people die by not giving them an effective vaccine." - Nobody who participates in such a study is left ...


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I finally had some time to look into this again, and I found the source. The most popular source of this seems to be Ruth Benedict's paper in J. General Psychology, 10, p. 59-80 (1934). Long excepts from it can be viewed without a paywall here. I think that the original source is from Franz Boas's anthropological work on the Kwakiutl (one group of Kwakwaka'...


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Human values ultimately stem from struggles related to human instincts. No doubt, many human desires require material resources, but some human desires require social resources. These are the egoistic desires like pride, honour, and entitlement. A common example is that of child custody or decisions related to upbringing. Even in a hypothetical world where ...


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