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Along with the very apt, 'golden rule', mentioned above, Spinoza maintains that the only necessary and generally applicable morality derives when individuals listen to the innate and organic 'voice' inside which advise them on what is best for themselves. By extension and since this 'voice' bears a strong resemblance from person to person what is personally ...


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Offering a specific advice on a specific problem does not amount to offering an ethical maxim to be followed generally. If "the individual will liberally use it" as such it is their responsibility (assuming they subscribe to Kantian ethics) to make sure that it is properly universalizable. At most, you owe them a warning that the solution offered has ...


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Let me make a case for the "against" side. Comment: 0.1 I won't use the Oxford English dictionary because it's behind a paywall. 0.2 I'll put a bibliography at the bottom of the post. 0.3 I've struggled with the formatting. I apologize if it makes the post difficult to follow. 1. Merriam-Webster's (hereafter "the dictionary") 3rd definition ...


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jobermark observes in a comment: But there are clearly times when someone has deluded themselves into accepting a fallacy, in which case there is no deception in the moral sense, only error. It is not immoral to spread your incorrect understanding if you think you are being helpful. Douglas Walton and Marcin Koszowy consider the argument from authority ...


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So is there anyway to justify the first stance using consequentialist ethics (again I'm assuming a deontological approach is a no starter) ? In the middle eastern countries you can get executed for being a member of that group and it's because the government is strongly tied to their religion, so for many tolererance may be a matter of eternal punishment as ...


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Don't (try to) win at chess (with a human opponent). Don't (try to) commit suicide (for someone else). Don't (try to) steal other people's property (if they / we have rights to property). etc. the CI makes sense, you just need a little nuance to get them. There is the related question of whether we may deceive ourselves into not really following the CI, ...


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The "tolerance of intolerance paradox" is a highly misleading logical fallacy that conflates an attitude of acceptance of intolerant ideas with acceptance of harmful actions. It's basically used as an excuse and justification to rationalize being intolerant based on entirely subjective notions of "offense" and "words are violence." I tolerate Nazis and ...


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I think that the fee is there to encourage people to return bottles/cans. Bottles and cans are recycled. Some vendors will add the cost o the bottle to their vending cost but then they will pay you back for it and they will reuse (recycle) it, so this represents a save for them. Other vendors are not bother. When you say ethical you refer to morals and this ...


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Utilitarianism says that pursuing the "greater good" will on benefit the most people (including the individual). Therefore the altruism that utilitarianism requires, is mostly grounded in self interest. It is not gratuitous like some regular altruism could be. The problematics of such altruism centered in self interest is also called "tragedy of the commons"...


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The characteristics that one has are an objectification into traits or predicates that one can imagine oneself possessing. They are only a list of what one has that might be useful for market researchers or sociologists. No living person is the sum total of these characteristics because that sum total would not be able to experience any of those predicates. ...


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What is the relationship between knowledge and light that Plato presents in the Cave Allegory in Book Seven of his Republic? Light - 1 In the cave allegory Plato repeats the relationship between knowledge and light that he had posited in the simile of the sun (Rep., VI, 507a ff.). The sun is the Form of the Good, the ultimate principle of reality and ...


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This is called liberalism. Proponents of liberalism try to maximize the liberty of people, and liberty means the ability to choose. Philosophers of liberalism can be found here


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I think he is talking about Hegel's reading of "The original sin" and the idea (from naive point of view) is that men are not good in the beginning and then they fall from goodness, but that they are evil from the beginning. A text from wikipedia on the "Fall of men", sometimes referred to as "Felix culpa". The fall of man, or the fall, is a term used in ...


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Finding out whether a proposed maxim is, in fact, a valid categorical imperative goes something like this: Suppose everyone followed the maxim, x. If everyone followed the x, does a contradiction in terms result? If a contradiction results, x is not a valid maxim. Otherwise, x is a valid maxim. An Example: Suppose lying were always justified and that all ...


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I believe that the term "good" itself is relative and that has formed on the basis of our ancestors. To them whatever produced greater good and served humanity or for their individual selves was good for them. And maybe people observed that being happy produced greater good for the individual and other around him/her and therefore, many people say that ...


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This is one of the core questions in philosophy, and as such, it has as roughly as many different answers as there are philosophers (perhaps more!). Choosing a philosophy is more or less equivalent to selecting whose answer you want to follow. A few of the answers include (the following is heavily glossed, and not guaranteed accurate): Plato: seeking ...


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I should say, assuming a vegan position for the sake of argument, that you are defining a false antithesis. Is it the purchase of the meat that's wrong or its consumption that's wrong ? Both are wrong. It would be wrong if, say as a guest in a restaurant, you ate the meat without having purchased it (eating would be sufficient for wrongness); and it would be ...


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Early Buddhism can offer an awesome perspective into this problem. Buddhism goes beyond conventional interpretations of "good" and "bad" (but without ignoring them). Instead, it classifies ways of life, actions and intentions according to its potential to perpetuate/increase or decrease insatisfaction. It seems, after careful consideration and checking, that ...


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The Groundwork and the good will While the Groundwork gives pre-eminent place to the good will (guten Wille), it says nothing so far as I know about the bad or evil will. Of course, it doesn't logically follow that if there is a good will there is also a bad or evil will: apart from the good will there might only be a non-good or neutral will or indeed no ...


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Yes, it is, but it should be noted that "in itself" has a different, more colloquial, meaning here than in the Kant's "thing in itself", where it stands for something relating to the world behind the appearances, unknowable to us. It is clear from context (see GMM 4:393-394) that Kant wants to contrast "good in itself" will to many other qualities that are ...


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"Felix Cupla" is the title of the third chapter in Zizek's book Event: A Philosophical Journey Through A Concept. I haven't read it myself but it looks like a good place to start.


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Most has been said. The problem, if any, is not moral, but practical. The reality is that no one will be able to pursue money his entire life without linking it to a greater purpose. You have to believe in something big to be willing to devote your entire life to it, else you are going to feel hollow and question it at some point. And just seeing a growing ...


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Whether or not it is moral is only for him to decide. Years from now his ideas could be feasible and his volition just may allow him to grow into the sort of being that can live forever. It seems he views money as a tool and a life source more than as a means of pleasure, according to you. What wrong could be done if you manage to convince him? I would say ...


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There could be nothing wrong about making money. There could be nothing wrong about rejecting any too specific thing for it being a waste of time, if they could universally legally live without it, no matter how common it is in your eyes. You only feel there is a problem when he is perceived as "only" motivated by money. Here is a problem: it's very ...


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But I made the case that eating meat isn’t immoral. The act of purchasing meat was the immoral act. If I understand the argument here, you are observing that slaughterhouses will continue to operate as long as people buy meat. What consumers do with the meat they buy---eat it, throw it directly in the trash, wear it on their heads---is morally irrelevant ...


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Money is a tool/medium/channel/etc. Everyone knows it. When man is working so closely in one thing, overtime, he might not see the big picture anymore, and therefore lose track. Example, a man is working hard and long hours to get money to make his and his family's life easier (and therefore happier). Gradually, he keeps working harder and longer, until he ...


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Like for any moral question, you have to pick a moral framework to be able to get an answer. For example, I know of no religion that would approve of person Z. Kant would say that person Z's behavior is contrary to reason, as "accumulate as much money as possible without caring for anything else" can not be made into an universal law (In layman terms: "...


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Are there any moral/philosophical objections to this kind of life? The chief philosophical objection is that money is not an end unto itself - If money brings that person happiness (or that's what the person imagines), then happiness is what the person is after. Then their life is not purely motivated by money, but by the desire for happiness. If the ...


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Nature abhors equality, but it's also completely Darwinist, cruel and unforgiving. The danger in rejecting this rule comes from the potential systemic abuse of power (when this rule is not protected), coming specially from mediocrity, that would destroy the correct system of values in society. Overprotecting this rule is also dangerous, because the (...


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I think the moral argument against a life purely motivated by money is simple. Increasing wealth alone benefits no one, including the “wealthy” person, therefore it is not “good.” It could easily do great good, but doesn’t, therefore it is in fact “bad.” This is like the “good man” who does nothing when bad things happen, and therefore is bad. Some other ...


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The following is my somewhat impressionistic sense of how I've seen the two terms used, especially in contemporary Anglo-American philosophy. My impression is that this (which is mostly analytic) overwhelmingly uses the word "ethics" to refer to fundamental values and value-systems, especially as they can be established through philosophical reasoning. I ...


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Yes (well assuming you're using "moral" in any of the normal senses). Aristotle objected to this in Book I of the Nicomachean Ethics. In chapter 5, Aristotle suggests there are three candidates for the "good life": Pleasure Honor Virtue He then as an aside says the following: The life of money-making is one undertaken under compulsion, and wealth is ...


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Well, nobody here has challenged my belief/assertion/bit of philosophy about justification and truth: I think that truth is irrelevant to justification. It seems clear that historical (Pre-Kantian) methods have failed to produce a current consensus that any justification is adequate in theory or in practice to produce objective certainty about anybody's ...


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If you suppose that morality foundationally requires objective values and that such values can only be provided by God, then I suppose that as an agnostic you are in a quandary about the foundations of morals. But in the first place, objective values conceptually do not presuppose the existence of God. Plato argues for such values in the Republic and ...


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