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Though Indian philosophy is a made-up solution to life's problems like suffering, impermanence, difficulty in satisfying one's desires etc., this does not mean this is possible just by studying Indian philosophy. When we reach higher classes we understand higher levels of truth. Though many of the ideas we studied in lower classes may be insignificant in ...


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In Western critical theory (the current evolute of the post-modernist/post-structuralist type thinking), they often harp on the idea of a 'language world': a superimposition of human language and human concepts on the 'natural' world. Their point is that it is this 'language world' that we live in, not the 'natural' world. For example, if I pick up a hammer, ...


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Dr. Ed Feser's Aquinas: A Beginner's Guide (ch. 3, § "The Fifth Way") summarizes Aquinas's Fifth Way to prove God's existence (with Freddoso's better, 2018 translation substituted): The proof from finality starts with the observation that [1a] “things lacking cognition, viz., natural bodies, act for the sake of an end. This is apparent from the ...


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Bit unclear out of context, but I would take this to mean: are "actual entities" all that exists? As in, what sort of existence do we accord "the present King of France" or perhaps even imaginary numbers, such as the infamous square root of -2? The logical positivists would simply say that the king does not exist and any statement about ...


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