14

It seems to me that this question is based upon two false assumptions. 1.) Feminism today seeks not to erase the differences between men and women, but to change the perception of everything feminine as being inherently lesser than everything masculine. It is from this aim to normalize and appreciate "femininity" that the lines between strictly gendered ...


13

Your problem seems to come about through a misunderstanding of what is oppressive about the situation. The oppression resides not in the task but the lack of choice. Then it is much like any other life choice. Imagine all men are told you have to work in physical labour because your physique is suited to it. Some guys currently choose to work as builders ...


9

Spinoza's central problem here, is that it's a circular argument. He is essentially saying, that if women were equal, they'd be equal; as they are not, they must be not. Now the effective way out of his circle is to gather evidence, that women are not equal. However, he had no access to the myriad societies in both past and future where this was not the ...


6

Two key articles to read to understand care ethics: http://www.iep.utm.edu/care-eth/ http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-ethics/ Basic answer: feminist care ethics is a project building on the work of Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings. Gilligan was critical of Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Lawrence Kohlberg came up with six stages of moral ...


6

The problem with elementary gender studies courses is the tendency for their instructors to focus on political matters with little consideration given to the philosophy. As Mozibur Ullah stated, to appreciate the philosophical ideas of gender studies it is important to understand how feminism is more than simply a campaign for equal rights, and how gender is ...


6

There is an assumption here that "force of character and ability" is the only trait of a human which leads to their position as a ruler. As long as this assumption is true, his argument is valid. However, it has never been true. The environment individuals are raised in has a substantial effect on whether they will be a ruler or not. For instance, ...


5

if by nature women were equal to men He's not being clear what he means by nature - it could be many things, including on average that women are smaller than men, or slighter. He's also using the plural: men and women; so it's likely he means on average - and this itself has several meanings: does he mean most frequently? And this doesn't rule out ...


5

In Fashionable Nonsense, Sokal and Bricmont draw on quite a few different bits of Irigaray's work, but the one that is most extensively quoted is her This Sex Which Is Not One, specifically chapter 6 on "The Mechanics of Fluids". Irigaray is writing about the treatment of women and the feminine within the context of western philosophy, and in this chapter ...


4

In order to answer this question as stated in the penultimate paragraph, we must first show how a lowering of the burden of proof to a preponderance of evidence constitutes an infringement of the presumption of innocence. Paul Roberts argues that there are three reasons for this (but I only see two and will present them as such for ease). The first is that ...


3

You might try : Andrea Nye, Words of Power: a feminist reading of the history of logic (Routledge: London 1990). Val Plumwood 'The Politics of Reason: Towards a Feminist Logic': Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71 (1993), pp. 436-462. Allison Weir, Sacrificial Logics: Feminist Theory and the Critique of Identity, ISBN 10: 0415908639 / ISBN 13: ...


3

Gender, at least as a modern category of thought is rooted in studies of anthropology, linguistics & psychoanalysis. One might also say the fluidity of gender is a corollary of freedom as a transcendent value of Western Civilisation - which places it in a political context. Judith Butler is a prominent gender & queer theorist, and her most famous ...


3

I don't have an answer for you, but some thoughts that might prompt a better answer. I suppose this question can be split into two: 1) is reproduction neccessary for consciousness 2) is this reproduction neccesarily sexual. Reproduction seems to be a neccessity for continued existence given all things 'wear out' eventually - even AI in silicon were it ...


2

I'm reading Daniel Dennett's "Kinds of Minds" right now and from what I read he has an answer to your question. While he doesn't make the claim that consciousness is caused by sexual reproduction per-se, he does show how consciousness arises from the properties of self-replicating DNA and RNA, i.e conciseness arises from biological systems' urge for ...


2

To get away from our animal roots when talking about thinking, you really need to get away from brains altogether. There are a range of approaches that afford 'consciousness' to evolution itself. (This is clearly proposed in Hermes Tresmagistus and the Zohar, and explicitly extrapolated forward by folks with pantheistic eschatologies like Terrence McKenna ...


2

Is the following paragraph talking about a specific artwork by Sarah Lucas, titled 'Self-portrait with fried eggs' or her series of portraits called 'Self-Portrait'? It's the self-portrait with fried eggs given the article mentions the 'ancient Indian' dancing girl, and the pose she strikes. What is the eternal triangle here? The pudenda - just look at ...


2

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luce_Irigaray#Controverses "L’équation E=MC2 est-elle une équation sexuée ? Peut-être que oui. Faisons l'hypothèse que oui, dans la mesure où elle privilégie la vitesse de la lumière par rapport à d’autres vitesses dont nous avons vitalement besoin. Ce qui me semble une possibilité de la signature sexuée de l'équation, ce n'est ...


2

There are many different ideological lines within Marxist thought and the analysis of the labor's movement problems is defined by these different perspectives. The question thus can be considered too broad to be answered in brief so I will focus to the issues raised in the question. In general Marxism analyzes the relations between economic classes, the ...


2

This may be less of an answer than a defense of the question -- I like @AlexanderSKing and I consider him more brave than misinformed. My own reaction is exactly @Oliver's, and I don't intend to compete with him. The question leaves out a very important complicating factor. There really are three players in the game here. Framings of gay identity, ...


2

Some of the central lessons that 'culture' feminism has had to inject in other places (e.g. Gilligan's criticism of Kohlberg, or Fox-Keller's of abstraction as dominance) are that: independence is not in-and-of-itself good (roles are ok, when they are fairly chosen), mutual dependency is not automatically ambiguous or complex (a fair family structure is ...


2

I don't know the reasons of proposing you that read, but I've found this topic in a casual conversation, also related to the construction of knowledge by white people. I found the subject highly provocative to reflection, so I rephrase a bit the conversation: Contemporary science, mainly on the quantum physics field, show that some physical facts can be ...


2

The idea behind the ethics of care is that ethics is not an isolated factor of an independent person. People are interdependent, and truly moral actions may most logically flow from feedback and empathic cycles rather than from internal principles or decisions. So the appropriate way to increase moral behavior is to form bonds of care between individuals ...


2

At a less apologetic level, the math is just bad -- in a way that it is still bad when used by both feminists and traditionalists whenever they speak of women and power. (Sorry, you cannot ask a gender question on the Internet, and expect to escape the MRA point-of-view.) The observation lacks the notion of distribution. The top end of any distribution ...


2

Let's say your definition of the phrase 'choice feminism' is accurate. I submit that your question falls if considered under certain realistic circumstances. For one, (I assume) you are comparing the mental status and choice of a slave long conditioned to his/her position of subjugation whilst possessing little to no recourse to an alternate lifestyle to the ...


1

If even after passing emancipation laws, some African Americans still chose to remain indentured servants, progressives would have questioned their judgement and tried to change their mind, and their owners would have been condemned for accepting such an arrangement. “Choice slavery abolitionism” … well, there are obviously tons of arguments against it, but ...


1

I'm going to respond to the content presented more than the label "choice feminism" because a quick google will reveal that the answer to the topic question "How do feminist thinkers justify choice feminism?" is most often "they don't." The idea that any choice a woman makes is independent and inherently liberatory is seen as pretty dubious by a lot of ...


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