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The short answer is J.S. Mill's "harm" principle" In an attempt to use Mill’s own argument against him, critics often cite the frequently misunderstood harm principle. This principle, which states that liberty should be restricted only to the extent that it prevents one person from causing harm to another (e.g. the right to raise my fist ...


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See Action, Freedom, and Plurality in Hannah Arendt: or Arendt, action is one of the fundamental categories of the human condition and constitutes the highest realization of the vita activa. [...] The two central features of action are freedom and plurality. By freedom Arendt does not mean the ability to choose among a set of possible alternatives (the ...


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I think this question raises genuine difficulties about dignity as a foundational value. The term, 'dignity', is entrenched in moral and political theoretical discourse but is hardly used outside it. Its sense is, I take it, linked to the idea of instrinsic value or intrinsic worth. This at any rate is how I will take it. It seems clear that a person or ...


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I think it's a big assumption, but not without some merit. Firstly, we don't know if there are truly random events at all. To say that an event is random means that we don't have sufficient information (and method of calculation) to determine the exact outcome. But we cannot be absolutely certain that such information doesn't exist (e.g. some yet-to-be-...


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I am talking about the freedom to say what you think in order to challenge any particular status quo without physical violence. As a long-time political activist, I'd say it's a lot more complicated than that. Imagine a society where you're allowed to say whatever you want - but no one hears you because the corrupt media won't acknowledge your existence, ...


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The freedom in free speech is freedom from restrictions imposed by the state. Now what freedom from restrictions by the state could "free software" refer to? It can only be the existing intellectual property regime, copyright. But the GPL depends on the existence of copyright law. It's not just a license that creates a situation which would arise ...


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(This answer elaborates a bit on R. Barzell's answer.) Charles Mills takes up this question in his book The Racial Contract. The title of Mills' book refers to a kind of inversion of classical social contract theory. Classical social contract theory uses a hypothetical, general social contract (involving "everyone," in some sense) to characterize a just ...


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I know one argument for this free will problem. I think that it proves the existence of free will. it is the lazy argument or called idle argument. If you are sure that I have no free will and everything came ,coming or will come to me through some determinators like nature or god. If you belıeve You were programmed by some determinators then everything you ...


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The right to say absolutely anything could be called "absolute freedom of speech", but that does not exist in any country. "Regular" freedom of speech is typically understood as the freedom to express ideas, constrained only by restrictions that are considered minimal and reasonable. In the United States, for example, those restrictions ...


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They reserved these rights for humans and called those they wished to enslave "subhuman". Humans do this all the time; they manage to maintain contradictory positions by creating distinctions specifically to allow these sorts of loopholes. We can't blame philosophy for this, but philosophy does have a long tradition of trying to define humans, and has ...


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Perhaps you need to clarify what you intend 'freedom of speech' to cover and include. Below I take it that you are concerned with freedom of speech in the sense of the expression of ideas, principles, beliefs. One might call this a political construction of 'free speech'. However, do the many socially imposed constraints on certain words and expressions that ...


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...the authoritative books against [freedom of speech] Two passages from Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four : (1) O'Brien's conversation with Winston Smith while interrogating Smith in prison; (2) The Book, which explains the social system of Oceania, and which Smith reads after joining The Brotherhood.


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In a classical universe, it may be possible in principle to predict things, but impossible in practice. So we use predictors like character and identity instead of just initial conditions. In a quantum universe, there is https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Superdeterminism So, in these views free will is the subjective experience, even in a deterministic ...


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Emotional reactions to things are an automated response to your own underlying values. The fact that you experience a feeling of guilt from your rejection of these beliefs therefore suggests that you have not fully abandoned them, or at least, you have not fully abandoned associated beliefs that underpin them. If you are taking a course of action that is ...


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Freedom from the self is NOT an existentialist concept, but it does occur frequently in other places throughout philosophy. One of the most famous is in Plato's Republic, where the unjust man is depicted as intrinsically unhappy because he is a slave to his own desires. Freedom from the self is a concept also frequently found in religious philosophies, ...


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I think the proper way to approach this question is to turn it around to the contrapositive. Think for a moment about the worst, most despicable, evilest, and most unworthy person imaginable: a serial killer, a genocidal dictator, an ideological tyrant, or whatever bogieman you happen to favor. What can we do to such a person that we could not do to someone ...


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Free-will means making conscious choices... basically when you know what you are doing -- which most people don't, sleepwalking through their lives, never bothered to look for a sound explanation of their own actions. Despite the fact that everything we do serves a purpose, and, often, a part of some elaborate script. As an exercise, imagine you want to make ...


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It really depends what concept of free will you are considering. Generally, there is compatibilist freewill and libertarian freewill. compatibilist freewill is the idea that, even if the world is deterministic, we have free will in the sense that our brain makes decisions. Even if they are determined by our sensory input and our previous brain state, they ...


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Paul Ricoeur gives a definition of the democratic quality of society that goes as such (best effort tranlation and emphasis mine): A democratic society recognizes it is divided, its citizens having contradictory interests, and has each citizen participate, equally, in expressing those contradictions, analysing them, and deliberating about them in order to ...


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It might be instructive to be more specific about the freedom -- freedom to ..., of ..., from ... Then we can examine a specific freedom -- say, freedom of speech. Generally speaking, A's freedom of speech does not impede B's. (It maybe does affect B's; for example, B would not know certain things without A telling B about them, so A is affecting what B ...


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Here are some key terms regarding Jean-Paul Sartre's concept of freedom: existence precedes essence, being for itself (one's own self), being for others (others' existence), and being in itself (all the unconscious things), anguish, bad faith (fleeing from oneself or responsibility). He considers that there are many things which we can't choose. We have to ...


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Here's a trivial example: In college my school's rival was red, so we never wore red. I was in the band, and they took this position to an absurd extreme: members would get rid of clothes with a red dot, a red tag, a red thread, etc. Now when I graduated from college I knew the truth, that there is nothing wrong with wearing red. But it took some of my ...


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Cognitive dissonance The phenomena you are describing is called cognitive dissonance. In the field of psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values. The occurrence of cognitive dissonance is a consequence of a person ...


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Freedom is not a quality of individuals; that's a mistake made in certain misinterpretations of classical Liberalism. Freedom is a quality that people grant to each other (or not) within the context of a community. Without a community there is no freedom; there is merely the the constant stream of subsistence labor required to maintain life. Most of the ...


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Freedom is not subjective at all : it is the contact point between individual and society. In principle, modern democracies grant to each individual belonging to that society a full control over individual existence. But that control needs a correct "operation" of society : government, law, etc. In order to operate correctly, the governed society needs ...


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That depends on how one defines "the universe". Assuming you include yourself as part of the Universe and the Universe also include everything that exists, then any free will you have is "completely governed by the universe".


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An important element of Locke’s theory of natural rights is that it bears the name natural. According to Locke, those rights are natural because they are pre-political that is to say that everyone in the state of nature is entitled to them. Pre-political is the state of nature which arises before any form of political authority. Thus, in a sense, Locke’s ...


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Every mind would be imprisoned if we could take hallucinogens freely, as well, it would just be a cell with a TV.


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It is best to set out some account of 'libertarianism', since until we have settled roughly what we mean by it, we can hardly tell what alternatives might also 'hold freedom as something that is intrinsically good'. We can't say what an alternative to libertarianism might be until we are clear what we take libertarianism itself to be. Libertarianism ...


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Regarding Sartre (mentioned by “Gordon”): freedom is central to his philosophy. But his understanding of freedom is very strange (to the point of him claiming that no normal human can fail to be free), so that's probably not what you're looking for. You mentioned libertarianism and this is a good place to start. But since for mainstream libertarian thought, ...


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