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What did Nietzsche mean by accusing Christianity of slave-morality? “I finally discovered two basic types and one basic difference. There are master morality and slave morality. . . . The moral discrimination of values has originated either among a ruling group whose consciousness of its difference from the ruled group was accompanied by delight -...


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There are philosophical frameworks in which "consensual" activity is still illicit. Consider these two examples: Under the umbrella of deontology, there are a couple different groups that say (for various different reasons) that certain behavior is simply against "the rules." Since they are against the rules, it doesn't matter if the action is consensual. (...


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I certainly think you could have a coherent, viable moral system based around this principle; in many ways we already do in the concept of free will and recognition of and respect for other people as free-willed subjects. In fact, in the evolution of secular ethics this could be considered a real trajectory. I do not think such a system would be ...


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It is impossible to compress Nietzsche's views on morality into a short answer, let alone one that will find universal assent. However, here is an extract from a review of two Nietzsche experts, Ken Gemes and Christopher Janaway, of another Nietzsche expert, Brian Leiter. It gives a reliable first pass at Nietzsche's overall views on morality : According ...


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Cheating genetics? Yes, absolutely. In precisely the same way that wearing clothing cheats genetics. Cheating evolution? Definitely not, at least not evolution by natural selection. That's exactly what's going on here. Our hero is adapting to his environment to ensure genetic success.


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This is a great question, one that I've wanted to come back to for a while, but lacked sufficient time. Framing the question in terms of lasting value, I think being overly focussed on the truth-value of TGoM's content may obscure what history has proved to be most valuable. In relation to your comments above I would say it must also be observed from the ...


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Christianity has often been promoted by oppressors, who perceive it as promoting meekness and compliance. However, there is a radical subversiveness to Christianity which has also made it the foundation of many movements promoting the interests of the poor and oppressed --for instance the American Civil Rights movement of the 1960's or the social justice ...


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As ChrisW states, in the English version it's "Trespasses" not "Debts" so it seems it's more about offence than actual debt. I think there's a possible ambiguity of "Forgive" here - it could be open to interpretation. To Forgive someone isn't necessarily the same as just ignoring their crime/offence against you. It's to allow them to redeem themselves in ...


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In Latin the word is debita ("debt"). In English it's "our trespasses", in French it's "nos offenses". So I think it's "forgive those who offend against us: those who aggress us". In other words I think it's a continuation of pacifist philosophy i.e. Turning the other cheek. As for whether that's colonialism, a principle of non-violence apparently ...


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In a way it is. Bear in mind that Jesus lived and taught in a country that was occupied. A lot of people hoped that the Messiah would be the one to do something about it. But as it turned out Jesus rejected that idea by which he alienate quite a lot of people. Once he was asked how he feels about the taxes the Romans were collecting - basically his answer ...


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Are there non-religious traditions that acknowledge "absolute goodness?" Here are a couple approaches: Objectivism considers there to be such a thing as correct and incorrect moral choices, and happens to originate from an atheist. Descartes took only his own existence as axiomatic, and from that used only reason to derive moral right and wrong. Of course,...


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Essay II of Genealogy of Morals is entitled “Guilt, Bad Conscience, and Related Matters”. Nietzsche identifies “the contractual relationship between creditor and debtor” as the sociological source and origin of issues like injury, guilt, and punishment (section 4). Section 20 states that “the consciousness of being in debt to the gods” increases in direct ...


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This view relies on an assumption that morality assements are only a function of the moral sentiments of each of the "actors" individually -- in any sensible moral system the sentiments of all sides of the interactions need to be considered. If I give a sandwich to a homeless person he/she (presumably) wants it, and will benefit in physical terms (have ...


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Consent has got nothing to do with it. It's about intent and consequences. In fact, it's really only about intent, as that implicitly takes care of consequences, but I don't want utilitarians do get their panties in a bunch, so I'll just add consequences in separately. If you decide to get together with your gossip buddy and talk trash about other people, ...


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There exist many works from fiction which are secular in the sense of your definition, i.e., free from religion or mythology. Just to name two modern authors: Henry Miller (Quiet days in Clichy) or Max Frisch (Homo faber). In addition: A novel dealing with questions of moral can be a secular work. Moral and religion are not necessarily linked. There exist ...


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Try : (1) Who Was Nietzsche's Genealogist? Elijah Millgram, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 75, No. 1 (Jul., 2007), pp. 92-110. Pretty critical and not unsubtle. Attacks (2). (2) Nietzsche on Ressentiment and Valuation Author(s): Bernard Reginster Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 57, No. 2 (Jun., 1997), pp. 281-305. Not an ...


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A free translation of a passage from Kant's 'Perpetual Peace' suggests that even a group of devils could form a perfectly tolerable society so long as they were rational. They could have the worst of moral orientations, as you might describe it, but provided they were not completely self-dependent (in which case they they would not need to form a society) ...


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Another good philosopher on this subject is Stephen Hicks, who has written a bit about Nietzsche and Postmodernism. Here is his digested summary of Nietzsche argument in the first essay of his book, On the Genealogy of Moralilty: Evolution and psycho-biology: Humans are an evolved bundle of inbuilt drives that assert themselves. The most basic drive ...


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I think the "trick" to understanding Nietzsche's critique of group morality would be to link his idea of strength with the idea that one "is" through "becoming" - those who continue to subscribe to group morality, or who were historically complicit in its development, are weak because they will not subscribe to this idea of strength; the source of "strength" ...


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I wouldn't say that Nietzsche's critique of modern man and his alienation is exclusive to On the Genealogy of Morality. In fact, it would be hard to systematically delineate exactly where Nietzsche discusses and delimits the nature of alienation. One thing I think I can say with certainty is that Nietzsche does not associate alienation solely with modern ...


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Agnostics. Agnostics assert certain claims cannot be know to be true or false. Nietzsche interprets this as admiring the unknown, the unintelligible. The unintelligible is not a person, not a who. They admire the fact (i.e. it is a fact for them) that certain claims are unknowable. The point about agnostics is a sidenote, I think. These final sentences seems ...


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Kierkegaard discusses promises in his deliberation on loving the dead in Works of Love. Specifically, the consideration in question is on what it means to have an obligation to one who is no longer living and how executing this is an act of love (in his vocabulary "work of love"). There's also some contemporary Kant-related literature on promise-making. ...


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For those who read German: ... — unsre ganze Wissenschaft steht noch, trotz aller ihrer Kühle, ihrer Freiheit vom Affekt, unter der Verführung der Sprache und ist die untergeschobenen Wechselbälge, die „Subjekte“ nicht losgeworden (das Atom ist zum Beispiel ein solcher Wechselbalg, insgleichen das Kantische „Ding an sich“): was Wunder, wenn die ...


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No, the Lord's Prayer does no increase corruption. Although it is possible for a would be "evil doer" to think that he could get away with doing evil, because anybody he offends/injures has to forgive him (and thereby being saved), he would be wrong in thinking so. Even if every person forgives him, there is still the society that would not! Also, there ...


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First and foremost, the question of going to Hell is answered in Romans 10:9 If you confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus and believe in your heart that God has raised Him from the dead, you will be saved. For with the heart one believes unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. For the Scripture says, "Whoever ...


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