23

In purely psychological terms, all the behaviours that keep us alive are controlled or driven by the unconscious brain. That is, most of the time, we don't need to reflect on the course of actions necessary for us to stay alive. We just do it, most of the time unaware that we are doing it and unaware of what is causing our behaviour. We eat because we are ...


18

However, it takes nothing of these moments after death, so it would be the same if they had never existed. Suffering, on the other hand, inflicts pain on it, which it has to endure during its lifetime. You are treating suffering and pleasure asymmetrically here. It also takes nothing of the suffering moments after death and also pleasure has enduring ...


9

It's nearly impossible to decipher Hegel even with that sort of background without a teacher. While I think knowledge of Kant and Spinoza is helpful, you should also be read up on your Plato and Aristotle. I would recommend reading some secondary literature alongside it. I recommend Lauer's Hegel's idea of philosophy and Frederick Baser's Hegel. I would ...


9

OP's question sounds similar to the argument for nihilism. If we don't take anything with us, what's the point of living at all? Let me offer the following observation. I propose that Nihilism has it exactly backward. “Nothing has meaning because everything ends” is the wrong way round. I propose, everything has meaning or value precisely because it ends. ...


7

I think Kant would take exception to being called an ontological idealist or dualist. There is no dualism between appearances and things in themselves in the Cartesian sense of "dualism", the "supersensible substrate" of appearances is strictly unknowable. On ontology critical Kant remained strictly agnostic, no matter how much it seems he wanted to ...


7

First, you are treating Joy and Suffering asymmetrically. You don't take anything with you. Your Suffering and your Joy are gone. Using Joy as a proxy term for "anything good" and Suffering as "anything bad", we get: During your life, more Joy is better than less Joy. So you seek Joy. All else being equal, living for more gets you more ...


5

The German is not at all ambiguous. But part of the problem is that they involve a play-on-words and work from the most basic parts of the German language. I wouldn't get too caught up on holding on to the terms specifically. After all, those are just what one translator decided to go with. As long as you grasp the concept, you can reword this in other ways....


5

1) According to SEP, see http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/#TwoObjInt, two different interpretations of Kant’s transcendental idealism exist: The two-object interpretation focus on ontology: There are two kinds of objects: things-in-themselves and appearances. The two-aspects interpretation focus on epistemology: “On this view, transcendental idealism ...


5

The instinct to live is primal in every lifeform, expressing as mastery of environment and basically power. Mastery of environment is the base drive. Once it is operational, survival follows without further volition (whence, who is the "master"?). As the base drive, the drive for mastery can be tricky : It is largely unconscious and has a flip-...


5

An important point that contributors so far have not raised is that we survive because of an inbuilt (i.e. subconscious) mechanism to survive. Any species that lacks this property can expect extinction. Therefore like many evolutionary characteristics, it is arguably not there for any reason except that those who didn't have it are dead.


4

an opportunity to get out my battered old copy of Grundlagen, woo. So the introduction is where Frege is establishing the point of the book: when you're writing an entire book to establish what people think they already know, you need to make a good case that they're wrong. So that's what he does; he takes on the current state of philosophical thinking ...


4

I agree with @virmaior that finding a knowledgeable teacher, friend, or a class on "The Phenomenology" is really important in order to get the most out of the text. A basic understanding of Kant is absolutely necessary since Hegel is directly in conversation with the methodology of Kant in the work, particularly in the first half. Also, don't read the ...


4

1817 lectures PhilPapers translates the title as Lectures on Logic and Metaphysics (from Wyss's announcement of the find in Hegel-Studien). Here is the German edition Vorlesungen über Logik und Metaphysik, Heidelberg 1817, Hamburg: Meiner (1992). The publisher's description explains (my translation): "It was not until 1984 that the postscript of a ...


4

This is a matter of perspective. We tend to think of ourselves as separate from others. I am me, an individual being; you are you, another individual being. Although that's true, it's not the full story. Think of your body for a moment. At this exact moment, there are billions of living beings being born, developing, multiplying, and dying. If a bacteria in ...


4

There have been many proposals for a fundamental human drive put forward here. I am reminded of a lecture I attended some years ago by the philosopher and literary critic George Steiner (who died in February this year), in which he said that he disagreed with Freud's view that sex (or sexuality) was the fundamental human drive, and argued that curiosity was ...


3

In sectioin 822 of the Will to Power (ed. Kauffman), Nietzsche's note from 1888 reads thus: "For a philosopher to say, 'The good and the beautiful are one,' is infamy; if he goes on to add, 'also the true,' one ought to thrash him. Truth is ugly. We possess art lest we perish from truth." (Will to Power; Section 822) This note reflects a theme ...


3

At the website for the Institute for Oswald Spengler Studies, Spengler’s biography says he never married. He seems to have been a reclusive figure, even by comparison with other philosophers.


3

Welcome, shawnru. There is no essence of idealism; there is no common and distinctive nature which all 'idealist' theories share. (The same is true of 'realism'.) There is merit in the following characterisation despite its age: idealism historically contains four main propositions: (1) Plato's (value is objective - its meaning and origin lie beyond ...


3

Well, first of all, Platonic Idealism is often called Platonic Realism. This is because Plato believed that pure ideas exist outside of mind, and that they are in fact only true reality, while world we perceive represents only temporary and fleeting shadows of these eternal ideas. For example, every tree we could see is just a shadow of real idealistic tree. ...


3

I agree with all of the above. You could, of course, start with some Kant and Spinoza. But all philosophers are bottomless, and assuming you have only one lifetime, you might as well just jump into the "hermeneutic circle," in keeping with Hegel's own method. There is no ideal starting point. You will need secondary literature, but not necessarily a ...


3

The aim of Schelling´s positive philosophy is to think the existence (the "quod") and not the essence (the "quid") as negative philosophy had done. That is the reason why he speaks about the "Daß" of God and not about the "Was" (the essence) of God. For Hegel, the Absolute´s necessity is contained in the concept. The whole phenomenology of spirit is a logic ...


3

I think you may be misunderstanding the value of the merely in Kant's formula of humanity formulation. It is not that it becomes okay to sometimes treat people as means; it is that it becomes okay to treat people as means so long as you recognize them properly as ends. Sticking with your factory analogy, you cannot on Kant's view treat your employees like ...


3

This is a very late answer and doesn't really substantially differ from the previous answer, nevertheless, I thought I could at least add a few pointers to places in Leibniz's texts. Roughly speaking you are correct. Leibniz, to my knowledge, never states that this is the best of all possible worlds, but it is the conclusion that Voltaire---not without ...


3

As with many instances in the progression of intellectual history, in order to understand the now, it is important to understand what has come before the now. With specificity to Nietzsche, it is important to recognize the influences of European philosophers, psychologists, scientists, and even musicians upon him (an aside, music was an important aspect of ...


3

Most introductions on Nietzsche will deal with this question, usually under the rubric of 'his style', in one way or another, as he can be a confusing read. Since your asking for some pointers: You can read Nietzsche across his work on a single topic, e.g. as Derrida does on 'Truth is a woman' in Eperons. Les Styles des Nietzsche (English: Spurs. ...


3

Reality tends to emergently create systems with various functions. If a system happens to attain a function of self-preservation, it is likely that it's going to keep itself intact as long as it's possible, with copying/spreading its principle of organization being a part of this endeavor. The parts of the question about taking something with you or ...


3

I would deem the translation misleading, to be honest. There are no definitions, really, this is simply a technical usage of language which is historical. That's why it is hard to pin down any sources discussing this as well, it is simply taken as a given. On "XXX überhaupt" (XXX in general/as such) There is one hint available in Ottfried Höffe's ...


2

I wish I could just comment but due to the low rep, I have to use the answer. I agree with @Strabo that you should read Nietzsche without any prior views, opinions, or perspective on the work. I would further add, try to understand it yourself and think about what he is saying. Once you have a grasp on what you think is said and what you understand from it, ...


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