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6

Original. As long as you are interested in a specific author, always the orignial (although for some there might be reading groups/seminars necessary, like Kant, Hegel, Foucault, etc. - but that is not the case for Plato!). You may miss some subtleties (reading it several times over the course of two weeks helps), but it is still better than reading a ...


6

The Platonic Socrates did not claim that he knew nothing. When asked by Chaerephon whether there were any wiser than Socrates, the Delphic Oracle replied that there was no one wiser (Apology, 21A). This puzzled Socrates, who thought he had no wisdom at all. He questioned the reputedly wise, then the poets, then the craftsmen or artisans. He concluded, not ...


5

Are people inherently good according to Plato? This may be a delicate question. On the one hand, Plato's Socrates asserts, in the Phaedo, concerning the misanthropist (hater of people), that only few people are genuinely good or evil. Is it not obvious that such an one having to deal with other men, was clearly without any experience of human nature; for ...


5

"Trial and error" applied not to a "reasoning process" but to medical practice, and the name of the practice was derived from Greek ἐμπειρία, experience. The inspiration for the approach apparently came from Greek Pyrrhonism, which recommended permanently suspending judgment on how things are in their own nature. This is what Pyrrho of Elis (c. 360 – 270 BC) ...


5

In his book Non-Duality: A Study in Comparative Philosophy, David Loy writes: If philosophy in the nineteenth century became historically conscious, philosophy in the twentieth century has become self-conscious. Attention has shifted from the construction of metaphysical systems to the act of philosophizing, that is, thinking itself. This has taken a ...


5

See Democritus of Abdera (born about 460 BCE) and the complete English transaltion of Democritus' fragments. In a nutshell, we may read it as [see Fr.113] : love for wisdom is more important than power. Democritus was an Atomist and one of central concerns of Presocratic Philosophy was the inquiry regarding nature. See e.g. Aristotle about Thales : ...


5

Ethicist Peter Singer defends infanticide in his books Should the Baby Live? and Practical Ethics. The following is an excerpt from an editorial in the Washington Post which quotes Singer's writings directly: From "Practical Ethics": "Human babies are not born self-aware, or capable of grasping that they exist over time. They are not persons." But ...


4

Chomsky, criticizing so harshly the postmodernism here, ( he is even calling their theories or whatever as pseudo-science. ) is describing in the above message? in a discussion? that the postmodernists are self- and mutual-admiration among those who propound what they call "theory" and "philosophy,". If sophists are the "merchants of wisdom", then the ...


4

The prime critic was Aristotle : 'Physics', VI. Plato does not set out Zeno's arguments but in his dialogue, 'Parmenides', there is in connexion with the paradoxes some argument or interplay between the Platonic Socrates and Zeno on the issue of whether there is a plurality of things or only the Parmenidean One : 'Parmenides', 127d-128e. It depends, of ...


4

I'm not sure whether 'prime time' is their time or our time. For our own time I'd nominate Sextus Empiricus (160 - 210 CE) who wrote subtly and coherently on a wide range of philosophical topics, and much of whose work remains - and remains in print in the Loeb Library. Every historian of ancient Greek philosophy is fully aware of Sextus Empiricus's work ...


4

There is no inconsistency. First of all, we have to consider that the "real" Socrates and the main character in many Plato's dialogues, called Socrates, are obviously linked but not exactly the same person. Plato had personal experience of Socrates and for sure he borrowed in many ways from Socrates, but in reading Plato's dialogues it is not easy to draw ...


3

Empedocles proposed a world composed of four elements and two forces called love (φιλότης) and strife (νεῖκος) The four elements, however, are simple, eternal, and unalterable, and as change is the consequence of their mixture and separation, it was also necessary to suppose the existence of moving powers that bring about mixture and separation. ...


3

It is about friendship (Ancient Greek: φιλία): Anaxagoras of Clazomenae was friend and counsellor of the Athenian stateman Pericles. See V.Azoulay, Pericles of Athens, (French ed., 2010), page 90: Peicles' public commitments were so absorbing that he could not always spare the time to devote to his friends, even the closest of them. According to an ...


3

Alain Badiou repeats in several places that Plato has written at length about some major and minorsophists, so Just as Plato wrote the Gorgias and Protagoras for the great sophists we should write the Nietzsche and the Wittgenstein. And for the minor sophists the Vattimo and the Rorty. Conditions (Continuum 2008) p.21 He has not written any book ...


3

Plato would prefer to censor the story completely and eliminate it from circulation because it projects a morally incorrect image of the gods. However, he recognises that the story, so firmly entrenched in traditional religion, may need to be retained. The sacrifice of a pig was standard at proceedings of the Eleusinian mysteries, which are not named ...


3

In this part of Book II, Plato is describing the early education of the Guardians. In Waterfield's translation, this passage appears in Chapter 4, "Primary Education for the Guardians". Plato, Republic (Oxford University Press 1994) Shall we, then, casually allow our children to listen to any old stories, made up by just anyone, and to take into their ...


2

This sounds like nonsense to me. There's a cottage industry of anti-colonial literature which tries to find precursors to Greek thought in non-European peoples. (See the wikipedia page on the book Black Athena for some details, and criticisms, of a different example of the genre.) I don't know of any meaningful sources of Indian or Hindu influence upon the ...


2

McEvilley, who is a Sanskrit scholar provides some evidence in his book The Shape of Ancient Thought; I'd also suggest that the art of Gandhara shows a definite mingling between Greek and Indian philosophies - but this is after Alexander's empire building. Another possible line of attack is through religous texts; given the duty to preserve texts; and that ...


2

I do not know how Prabhavananda supports his thesis "Hindu thought exercises a strong influence upon the minds of early Western thinkers." What are his arguments and examples? The first known contact between India and Greek in the domain of religious thinking and philosophical speculation are known from the Hellenistic period, after Alexander's conquering ...


2

In The Ister lectures (p. 56, GA 53 p. 70) Heidegger refers to Hölderlin's translation of Antigone, and continues through that chapter.


2

You can see : Walter Burkert, Greek Religion : Archaic and Classical (German ed, 1977) Daniel Ogden (editor), A Companion to Greek Religion (2010), Ch.25 : Greek Religion and Philosophy: The God of the Philosopher, by Fritz-Gregor Herrmann Peter van Nuffelen, Rethinking the Gods : Philosophical Readings of Religion in the Post-Hellenistic Period (2012).


2

The Liar Paradox has rather long story, starting around 600BC, and which mentions Eubulides, Chrysippus, Aristotle and other Greek thinkers: this is an indirect proof that for them lying would have been somehow possible.In this line a further argument would be Marcia L Colish The stoic theory of verbal signification and the problem of lies and false ...


2

I'm no Stoic scholar but it seems to me... As regards ethics they seem very similar up to a point. However, Stoicism has no 'enlightenment' and relies on speculation, and nor does it have a metaphysical foundation to justify and explain its ethics. (Thus in modern times even Materialists may call themselves Stoics despite the contradiction with the Stoic ...


2

Introduction I think there are two points to consider: 1) The way philosophy worked these days, i.e. through poetry and 2) The problem of being "lost in translation". I think most of us underestimate the wisdom of ancient Greek philosophy. I think that there may even be good reasons for expressing deep insights into the very fabric of Being and our place ...


2

I agree strongly that Plato should be read directly, but I would suggest there are better and worse reading orders. Plato's work is often divided into three (or more) eras, although this is speculative. The first set is considered to be dialogs he wrote early. These are more open-ended, are considered to be truer to the historical Socrates, and typically ...


2

From 'The Dionysiac World View', which is a kind of commentary on BN it appears that Greek tragedy on Nietzsche's view arose from the conjunction, the fusing in creative conflict, of the Apollonian and the Dionysiac. Both mentalities had existed separately but 'at the moment when the Hellenic "Will" blossomed' and this conjunction occurred, tragedy was born. ...


2

The Greeks understood the process of trial and error. You try one way, then you try another. But there is no evidence of which I'm aware that the Greeks elevated trial and error into a methodology of experimentation - a 'reasoning process' explicitly flagged as a proper part of valid scientific inquiry - such as we find in Bacon and later thinkers. In ...


2

I'm not really sure if the question in answerable quite how you worded it, because you're asking us to confirm your suspicion that you should just read Aristotle, Plato, and Plotinus... I think a better way to understand this is that much of medieval philosophy (both Islamic and Christian) follows a commentary tradition which differs from most types of ...


2

Building on the answer of @FrankHubeny, there is one very important point to be made: In the original, there are words "h i g h l i g h t e d" with spaces. Thus, the correct and full translation of the aphorism reads (with emphases): Inimitable. — There is an enormous suspense and span between envy and friendship, between self-contempt and pride: the ...


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