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27 votes
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Did the Ancient Greek Philosophers actually believe in their Gods and Myths?

'The ancient Greek philosophers' is rather a wide reference class. We don't really know enough about the historical Socrates to be sure about his views on the traditional gods. Plato In the Republic ...
Geoffrey Thomas's user avatar
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21 votes
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Why did the mid-19th century and earlier thinkers fixate on one-place predicates?

Because there was a calculus for one-place predicates, Aristotle's syllogistic, roughly equivalent to monadic predicate calculus. Aristotle does discuss "relatives" in Categories, which ...
Conifold's user avatar
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20 votes

When did philosophers decide philosophy was not useful, and why?

I will enlarge upon Nuclear Wang's reply by turning the question around a bit, as follows. When did natural philosophers (also known as scientists) decide that philosophy was not useful, and why? I ...
niels nielsen's user avatar
19 votes
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What is the philosophical ground for distinguishing logic and mathematics?

Let me give you a historical background first. Until the end of 19th century logic was almost exclusively associated with Aristotelian logic, the syllogistic. This logic did not have quantifiers, or ...
Conifold's user avatar
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19 votes
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Why doesn't philosophy of philosophy exist?

It exists. It is called meta-philosophy. It includes topics such as the definition and scope of philosophy, the methods of philosophy, and the role of philosophers.
Alexander S King's user avatar
19 votes

If philosophy is based on reason and rationality, then why is there so much disagreement?

The short version is that argumentation requires premises and inferences to get to conclusions. Even if philosophers agree on a systematic approach to inference, let's call such agreement logic, the ...
J D's user avatar
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17 votes

What did Socrates teach which lead to his conviction that he spoiled youth and taught other Gods?

There is a non-philosophical component to this which I think the other answers touched on, but did not quite get to. The years leading up to Socrates' trial were hard on Athens. Athens had just lost ...
yshavit's user avatar
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15 votes

If philosophy is based on reason and rationality, then why is there so much disagreement?

It has been said man is a rational animal. All my life I have tried to find evidence that could support this. Bertrand Russell While in the above, Russell takes aim at logic and the rational, he didn'...
Rushi's user avatar
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14 votes

What is the origin of the truth table in logic?

You can see: Irving Anellis, The Genesis of the Truth-Table Device (2004) as well as: Irving Anellis, Peirce's Truth-functional Analysis and the Origin of the Truth Table (2012). Before Bertrand ...
Mauro ALLEGRANZA's user avatar
14 votes
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Who is Plato and Socrates' God?

Whether Plato's character of Socrates or Plato himself believed in a God or many Gods is not perfectly clear. Additionally, we can't ascribe any sort of belief to the historical Socrates; we just don'...
Not_Here's user avatar
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14 votes

Did Logical Positivism fail because it simply denied human emotion?

Logical positivism does not deny human emotion. It simply reassigns its role. Ethical, aesthetic, or religious judgments, for example, fulfill the role of expressing or eliciting emotion - and not, ...
Geoffrey Thomas's user avatar
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14 votes

When did philosophers decide philosophy was not useful, and why?

Philosophy became more limited in scope during the 19th century. In the time of the ancient Greeks, philosophy encompassed all forms of knowledge, but specialized subfields of physics, medicine, ...
Nuclear Hoagie's user avatar
14 votes

When did philosophers decide philosophy was not useful, and why?

In the old joke, a college president complains to his physics professors that they are always asking for expensive equipment. All the mathematics teachers need is pencil, paper, a wastebasket, he says,...
Nelson Alexander's user avatar
12 votes
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(Why) is this negative outlook on the concept of philosophy misguided?

It's like saying what's the point of science if we just end up with more, greater mysteries. Philosophy is a toolbox, not a destination. This is emphasised by postmodernism, see: Does postmodernism in ...
CriglCragl's user avatar
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12 votes
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Why did Pythagoras prohibit eating beans?

The prohibition concerned specifically fava beans (vicia faba), associated with hemolytic response (rupturing of red blood cells) in some people, called favism. In a milder form, it causes excessive ...
Conifold's user avatar
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12 votes

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence?

People often don't realise how vague a term Artificial Intelligence is. It can be used to indicate anything from a synthetic mind with human-equivalent capacities (more properly called Artificial ...
CriglCragl's user avatar
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11 votes
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Did Plato believe in reincarnation?

Yes, and the Phaedo and the Republic (to cite just two texts) provide evidence for this. Phaedo Running through the dialogue has been the thought that soul and body are sharply distinct and ...
Geoffrey Thomas's user avatar
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11 votes
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What do they call philosophers in China?

The introduction to Jeniffer Liu's 2016 thesis The Problem of Philosophy in Classical Chinese Thought goes in depth into the genesis of Chinese terms associated with philosophy, and shades of meaning ...
Conifold's user avatar
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11 votes

Is the notion of "Complex System" a philosophy of science? Is it the opposite of Reductionism? Is it related to Holism?

Short Answer Complex systems is a mathematical approach to studying certain objects of science, and is neither a science, nor a philosophy, but an approach that might be considered a combination of ...
J D's user avatar
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11 votes

Is the notion of "Complex System" a philosophy of science? Is it the opposite of Reductionism? Is it related to Holism?

A system is a complex system if its characteristic properties cannot be investigated by studying its components in isolation. A typical example of a complex system is the weather: One cannot study the ...
Jo Wehler's user avatar
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11 votes

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence?

Ramon Llull is a good contender. From the Wikipedia article on the History of artificial intelligence: Spanish philosopher Ramon Llull (1232–1315) developed several logical machines devoted to the ...
Mutoh's user avatar
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10 votes
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What does Whitehead mean by calling science anti-rational?

To answer this, its helpful to have some background on Whitehead's understanding of rationalism. In Process and Reality (42) Whitehead defines rationalism as the hope that we can create a general ...
Jon Meyer's user avatar
  • 146
10 votes

Did Logical Positivism fail because it simply denied human emotion?

Logical Positivism did not fail because it denied human emotion. LP failed because it tried to reduce the concept of meaning to the process of verification, and it became increasingly clear that this ...
Ted Wrigley's user avatar
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10 votes

What is the difference between western and other philosophies?

Western philosophy (as commonly understood) is a set of philosophical systems originating in the Middle East and Europe that are heavily influenced by biblical hermeneutics (talmudic argumentation) ...
Ted Wrigley's user avatar
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9 votes

What does Whitehead mean by calling science anti-rational?

Science and the Modern World was first published in 1925. This is 12 years after Whitehead and Russel published Principia Mathematica but 6 years before Gödel poked holes in it with his ...
Cort Ammon's user avatar
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9 votes

Are there kinds of arithmetic that are decidable despite the Gödel theorem?

Yes, there are decidable arithmetics. But Gödel's original 1931 proof was in the framework of Russell's Principia Mathematica, chosen because it was the most developed logical framework for ...
Conifold's user avatar
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9 votes

Does Hegel appear much in any recent philosphical ideas?

In the analytic world, Hegel is especially unpopular. There's a lot of reasons for this: His robust commitment to metaphysics His writing style His popularity at Oxford during the 19th and early 20th ...
virmaior's user avatar
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9 votes

What did Socrates teach which lead to his conviction that he spoiled youth and taught other Gods?

The philosopher was charged on two accounts: impiety and corruption of the youth. The trial of Socrates occurred in 399 BCE with jury of about 500 men. Prosecutors argued that Socrates failed to ...
Nanhee Byrnes PhD's user avatar
9 votes
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Metaphysicist or Metaphysician?

The reason is historical. "Physics" as science is relatively recent (it was covered by natural philosophy before), and "physicist" as its practitioner was only coined by Whewell in The Philosophy of ...
Conifold's user avatar
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9 votes
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What is the origin of the idea that moral realism requires a god?

Your understanding of Euthyphro sounds inverted. At the time, the idea that "good" was just a name for what the gods approve of was a commonplace. Plato's goal here, in fact, is to replace ...
Chris Sunami's user avatar
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