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The academic model had very old roots, stretching back to the guild systems of the middle ages. We can break it down like so: Apprentice (usually undergraduates in the modern system): Someone learning the basics of the trade. Journeyman (graduate students): Someone who has a firm fitting in the trade, but needs to stand on his own feet for practical ...


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Interesting question indeed. Small remark: it's Jewish influence, not Judeo-Christian. Christ wasn't even born at that time :) I don't think there are many historical records of academic relations between Jews and the Greeks, especially when most of the time the Jews were not treated as equals to the Greeks. Perhaps the most obvious connection between Jewish ...


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As mentioned in a comment, Alasdair Urquhart has written a paper, Russell and Gödel (Bull. Symb. Logic 22 (2016), 504–520), that discusses a number of different topics, including Russell’s view of Gödel’s results. He provides many of the Russell quotes that other respondents here have given, as well as the following quote from an “Addendum” that was written ...


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