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The problem Gettier points out is not with "truth", but with the analysis of knowledge as justified true belief. After his paper it has become common to say that this analysis is traditional. It is perceptive of you to see the oddness in the story according to which Gettier undermined the traditional understanding of knowledge. Julien Dutant calls this story ...


6

Bertrand Russell, Problems of Philosophy (NY: H.Holt & Co., 1912), p.131 If a man believes that the late Prime Minister’s name begins with the letter B, he believes what is true, since the late Prime Minister was Sir Henry Campbell Bannerman. But if he believes [we can add: for good reason] that Mr. Balfour was the late Prime Minister, he will ...


2

The Categories, chap.7 /On Relatives/ contains a remarkable discussion in just a few pages and its author, supposedly Aristotle, might well be the first to have 'studied' asymmetric relations. So Aristotle distinguishes contrariety and reciprocation, adding further consideration on simultaneity. All relatives are 'reciprocated', but no all of them have '...


1

The Key Socratic documents Plato wrote many plays. In most eg Republic, Plato uses Socrates as his mouthpiece. Arguably the two plays that are most authentically Socratic are the Apology and Phaedo – ie trial/sentencing and the subsequent death – more correctly murder – of Socrates. A key part of the Apology is... Socrates' encounter with the Oracle of ...


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William Rowan Hamilton's discovery of quaternions in the 19th century may be the first studied non-commutative relations. Here is Wikipedia: In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers. They were first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and applied to mechanics in three-dimensional ...


2

At the root of all these asymmetries is the fact that not all relations are commutative/symmetric. Here are some non-commutative/asymmetric relations involved in numbers 1: Factors ⇒ Product 2,3,6: Premises ⇒ Conclusion 4: Plaintext message ⇒ Encrypted message (even in symmetric cryptography) 5: Matter ⇒ Form 7: Logic ⇒ Math ⇒ Physics ⇒ Morality ⇒ ...


2

Milan Kundera's The Art of the Novel is a great treatise on this. Though he explicitly says "I am not a philosopher", his explication of what the novel is capable of that, perhaps, prose philosophy isn't, is very illuminating. His calling himself not a philosopher seems to me to be just an extreme adherence to the conceptual possibilities of conveying ideas ...


0

Understanding Philosophy of Science, by James Ladyman was the first text set to me (over a decade ago) for HPS, History and Philosophy of Science (no prior philosophy classes): Few can imagine a world without telephones or televisions; many depend on computers and the Internet as part of daily life. Without scientific theory, these developments would ...


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