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In short, no. Many other philosophers proposed novel innovations in moral philosophy, like Kant, Bentham, and Mill. Of course, the ideas of having rigid duties or making morality a function of consequences or universalizability tests are older than these authors, but they made significant inroads on how to do this and what the resulting ethical norms look ...


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Something I happened to read today in Russell's "The Scientific Outlook", may be relevant to the above comment about Russell having no sympathy for philosophers like Kant: Hume, nearly two hundred years ago, threw doubt upon induction, as, indeed, upon most other things. The philosophers were indignant, and invented refutations of Hume which passed ...


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It is attributed by Aristotle in the Metaphysics to Cratylus, a follower of Heraclitus. Reference: Aristotle, Metaphysics, 4.5 1010a10-15.


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I have to say Harris seems to be extraordinarily bad at philosophy. I haven't read the Moral Landscape but have listened to him talk about it. He uses the idea of a 'worst possible situation for everyone' as a supposed self evident foundation to navigate our moral thinking away from. But in doing so he presupposes a value system to call that situation the ...


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Hippias Major's authenticity is not beyond dispute. But for the sake of argument I assume here that it is the work of Plato. It is included in most editions of the dialogues. The source of the proverb, 'All that is beautiful is difficult' or 'Beautiful things are difficult' (chalepa ta kala (Hippias Major, 304e) is not evident. It may have no identifiable ...


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Many people make a mistake when they think about ethics: they believe ethics is a simple rule system for evaluating what is right and wrong in any given context, when ethics is actually a system of reasoning about questions that can be applied to different contexts. For instance, in your example you start by asserting that this is a question of self-interest ...


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As Tom Sorell points out, 'There is no evidence that [Hobbes] was concerned to elaborate a free-standing theory of reference, let alone a full-blown philosophy of language' (T. Sorell, Hobbes, London: RKP, 1986: 38. So there may be no precise answer to your question but something more can definitely be said. Hobbes has the idea of 'Absurdity', equally ...


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I am not really sure how selfishness is relevant. Helping him is unethical because it is cheating, and for the utilitarianism you brought up has much farther reaching implications than someone is happy because they passed a test. Since you describe the exam as "life changing", I would assume the exam is "important". Perhaps it lets a person enter a career ...


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This selfishness is ethical. Every Exam has its purpose. You said it is a life changing exam. In this question you considered only that guy. But there may be others (innocent guys) who have similar issues. If they had told you the same thing earlier, you would have helped them (if you had a tendency to do so). Here you have forgotten the examiner/...


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A theory of universals is a hypothesis about the metaphysics of our universe. It is not established analytically, but empirically, because yes, there could be a completely different set of "universals" as you noted. So the validity of a "universals" theory is established by its success in accurately describing our universe. Aristotle's theory did not work ...


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This question is hard to answer for at least two reasons. In the first place, a considerable amount of the pre-socratic philosophical material surives in fragments. There is no clear-cut decision procedure for whether, say, a number of related Heraclitian fragments amount to 'literature'. These fragments are not literature in the sense in which, say, a ...


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