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Before Frege, axiomatic systems were not a focus of philosophy, and Goedel is pursuing the immediate upshot of Frege's failure. So, in some sense, no. Nobody cared. Mathematics was grounded in some internal, perfect mental reality and not really based on axioms. Axioms just helped keep things clear. Paradoxes abound throughout the history of philosophy. ...


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Godel himself said that all he did was formalise the Cretan liar paradox into a formal system. So the idea or notion of undecidable statements was already apparent a long time before Godel but obviously not phrased in such terms. A simple parallel is with arithmetic. Its easy enough to notice that putting things into a group has certain properties which is ...


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While it’s not quite a perfect parallel, a related concern about decision problems had been phrased some years before Gödel’s work: see https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entscheidungsproblem . David Hilbert was pretty convinced as to the decidability of arithmetic prior to the Incompleteness/Incomputability proofs, but was aware that the problem remained open.


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A book from 2008 that treats the question : Adrian Kuzminski, Pyrrhonism: How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism (Lexington Books, 170 p.), and more recently 2015 Christopher Beckwith, Greek Buddha: Pyrrho’s Encounter with Early Buddhism in Central Asia (Princeton UP; commented here). People who insist that history should be seen as a positive science ...


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A full answer to your question would be very difficult here but there is a reasonably straightfoward account in the Ethics of how one type of 'adequate knowledge' is possible. This account is not dogmatic in my view. Three grades of knowledge The three grades of knowledge are readiy set out. There is knowledge: From signs; as for example when we ...


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Welcome Louis The passage you are looking for is Republic, V. 460C: ‘removed from sight into some secret and hidden place’ (T. Griffith, Plato: The Republic, Cambridge: CUP, 2000: 158). The passage is odd in at least one respect. As Patterson comments: ‘Infanticide or exposure seems to be the intent, but why the cryptic language?’ (Cynthia Patterson , ‘"...


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I can't vouch for the source, but here's one quote... This is the kind of medical provision you should legislate… provide treatment for those of your citizens whose physical constitution is good. As for the others, it will be best to leave the unhealthy to die… According to the article, "Plato wished to rid the population of people with ...


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For Aristotle, all change is change of or in a substance. Substances are what ultimately exist and are the fundamental bearers or subjects of change. If a substance undergoes change in its essential, defining properties, in the sense that it loses those properties, then it ceases to exist as that substance. If a human being is essentially (definably) a ...


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You might enjoy reading the works of Emil Cioran(there are plenty of his books translated into English from French and Romanian). It covers all the existential problems(and especially religion, where his ideas are very interesting, even though he is usually termed as being a nihilist) of man formulated into striking aphorisms.


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You might check out out Blaise Pascal’s Pensées where you will find this one: “All of man’s unhappiness comes from his inability to stay peacefully alone in his room.”


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Consider looking at Adorno's Minima Moralia which has a few sections devoted to very short aphorisms.


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An other writer of aphorisms, whom Nietzsche new and appreciated is La Rochefoucauld, Maxims https://www.gutenberg.org/files/9105/9105-h/9105-h.htm


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Aphorisms are a common philosophical tool, one used by any philosopher who approaches points that are metaphysical, mystical, or otherwise difficult to express directly in language. Aphorisms (like koans) are meant to draw the reader beyond the immediacy of language by posing an position that demands active reflection rather than passive acceptance. There ...


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Socrates wrote some pretty good aphorisms - some of them can be found in Plato's Apology.


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Short answer: Because of quotes by Kant and Hegel which indicate a span of 25 years between "a first" and "the conclusion of" philosophy. And this has absolutely nothing to do with freedom in particular. Long Answer: Why 25 Years? This is made quite clear by the Henrich student (and his co-author) Eckart Förster in his The Twenty-Five Years of Philosophy (...


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