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6

It is always hazardous to talk in broad terms of ancient Greek philosophy. In the case of the world, Plato* and Aristotle believed in the existence of a single, eternal world which none the less they conceived differently. Anaximenes, Heracleitus, Diogenes and the Stoics appear to have believed in a continuous series of single worlds. Empedocles accepted a ...


6

I think there is a correlation basis, although I am hesitant to call it philosophical. Let me reframe the issue: there is no doubt that social/cultural and fiscal liberalism are logically independent, so the question is why they are correlated in populations statistically. The reason can be psychological, or historical, or philosophical, or all three ...


4

This actually turns out to be a general philosophy lesson, more than anything specific on Nietzsche. The real answer is "The overman can be thought of as a centripetal force if that analogy works well." You have to flesh the analogy out before any statement can be made. In this case, Nietzsche's Übermensch is a tremendously complicated multi-faceted ideal....


4

The prime critic was Aristotle : 'Physics', VI. Plato does not set out Zeno's arguments but in his dialogue, 'Parmenides', there is in connexion with the paradoxes some argument or interplay between the Platonic Socrates and Zeno on the issue of whether there is a plurality of things or only the Parmenidean One : 'Parmenides', 127d-128e. It depends, of ...


4

I'm not sure whether 'prime time' is their time or our time. For our own time I'd nominate Sextus Empiricus (160 - 210 CE) who wrote subtly and coherently on a wide range of philosophical topics, and much of whose work remains - and remains in print in the Loeb Library. Every historian of ancient Greek philosophy is fully aware of Sextus Empiricus's work ...


4

To explain Foucault's method of archaeology it might be best to work from an example. In the history of economic thought there are various systems of of ideas : mercantislism, physiocracy, 'classical' economics, Marxist economics, the Austrian marginalists and so on and on. Now, one might examine any of these theories, say physiocracy (which held, to put ...


3

A good place to start is the two volume Histoire du Structuralisme (1991/2) by F. Dosse: it provides a context and a few chapters on Foucault in both books. In the late 70's quite a few people claimed to have always been "post-structuralists" but many of them, including Foucault, earlier were just "structuralists", a rather laudatory or at least fashionable ...


3

Marx is postulating the proletarian social revolution as the end of history. He does so because the proletariat is the first revolutionary class in history which lacks social property. By revolutionary class here we mean a class embodying a new set of relations of production (social behaviours) that will unfetter the productive forces (capacities of society ...


3

I think you'll find - you may well have done so already - that 'materialism' is the less frequently used term nowadays. It never really recovered from its association with pre-20th century conceptions of matter as 'inert substance shaped and formed by external sources' - or in Newton's words as of consisting of 'solid, massy, impenetrable, moveable particles'...


3

First, let me kill that idea. Anthropologists do not accept the idea that early humans were cave dwellers. While there have been a few groups of people who did, for the most part, caves are not very hospitable environments. They are dark, cold, and wet. A lot of material was found in caves because neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans used these ...


3

Yes, Popper was a harsh critic of Historicism as represented by Hegel and Marx with their "belief that history develops inexorably and necessarily according to certain principles or rules towards a determinate end (as for example in the dialectic of Hegel, which was adopted and implemented by Marx)." For Popper's critique, see Popper and Historicism (from ...


2

To the contrary, the worker has to be almost completely immiserated and desparate before he will revolt on a large scale. Take for example the sailors at Kiel toward the end of WWI, they could go no further, they revolted, and then it spread across Germany very seriously as time progressed, really only the workers in Berlin and Munich knew any theory. Now ...


2

The Marxist vanguard, by virtue of it being the vanguard, will be few in number; thus, even if they tried to change the world, it wouldn't amount to much; for the force they can apply, at least directly, won't amount to much. What they require is a lever that magnifies their force, and this is where the proletariat (of all kinds come in), and this is how ...


2

1 The share of the population in the lower class will increase. 2 The share of the population in the middle class will go to zero. 3 The number of people in the upper class will converge towards a very small number. Horkheimer can hardly be made in stand in for '20th-century Marxists', whatever his views, acknowledgements or revisions. But let's ...


2

"Archon basileus" translates as "king magistrate" So says Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archon_basileus Socrates's trial does not seem to have had a presiding official in the sense of an American trial judge. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_of_Socrates Euthyphro was a character, with Socrates, in Plato's Euthyphro dialogue. The full surviving ...


2

Was Shakespeare a member of the lower classes? For sure, not a noble. You can see : Lois Potter, The Life of William Shakespeare : A Critical Biography (Blackwell, 2012), page 2 and 3 : John Shakespeare [(William’s father) was] chamberlain or acting chamberlain of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1561 to 1565, [he] had been heavily involved with maintenance and ...


2

It is clearly a joke... Charles Harrington Elster does not seem to be an Ancient Greek Philosophy expert. If his work is about "words", I imagine that he has set up a "verbal joke" : see the Greek word lexicon : pertaining to words. And see also phago- : the Greek root for "eating". Thus Lexiphagoras may be read as "the word eater" or "the devourer of ...


2

The Categories, chap.7 /On Relatives/ contains a remarkable discussion in just a few pages and its author, supposedly Aristotle, might well be the first to have 'studied' asymmetric relations. So Aristotle distinguishes contrariety and reciprocation, adding further consideration on simultaneity. All relatives are 'reciprocated', but no all of them have '...


1

William Rowan Hamilton's discovery of quaternions in the 19th century may be the first studied non-commutative relations. Here is Wikipedia: In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers. They were first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and applied to mechanics in three-dimensional ...


1

That you are not able to find "Lexiphagoras" and I was not able to find "Alphasia" suggests that Charles Harrington Elster may have made this name and place up. Looking at the use of this name in There's a Word for It suggests Elster is not expecting us to take this reference seriously. For example, Elster quotes a nicely rhyming limerick as one of ...


1

Marx's economic determinism includes an element of teleology, rooted in his conception of human nature. You ask whether Marx's view of history is solely about what has come into being; or, whether it is about what may come into being; or, whether it is about what must come into being? It is not solely about what has come into being. Marx is not interested ...


1

Presocratics in Greece Socrates is a false marker for the start of philosophy even in Greece. To begin, if he wrote anything, nothing has come down to us and it is possible (as tradition has it) that he wrote nothing. What little we know of Socrates' ideas and arguments has to be gleaned from Xenophon's Memorabilia of Socrates and the Platonic dialogues. ...


1

Ancient China and Ancient Greece, in particular, are notable in that they had similar traditions of elaborated, influential, systematic writings that are clearly identifiable as philosophical that appeared roughly around the same time. What philosophy that went on to develop in Europe traces directly back to the Greeks, through the Romans, and what ...


1

This involves a fu damental misunderstanding about what science is. But that's not unusual, in fact a lot of scientists share it. Because they think philosophy can just stay in it's box, and don't recognise the underpinnings of their endeavors. You mistake technology, including ideas, for science. Ancient cultures developed electroplating https://en.m....


1

Because modern physics is dominated by atomism.* Pierre Duhem's Energetics program,** which promoted a generalized thermodynamics from whose first-principles all physics sub-fields should derive, criticized the "Cartesian method" of unnecessarily bringing metaphysical constructs like atoms into physical theories. See his Aim & Structure of Physical ...


1

Perhaps I'm not reading your question in the correct context, but one theory against determinism would be "human action". So basically it's Free Will vs. Determinism Do changes in the material conditions of life determine change? OR Does human action create and change the material conditions of life? This might be more in the realm of anthropology than ...


1

Just because a theory is not directly testable does not mean that it's not falsifiable. For example, take the Big Bang. We (hopefully) cannot directly test the Big Bang. What we can do, however, is look at various models of how the Big Bang developed and look for interesting consequences that are testable. With enough predictions that enforce some theories ...


1

Equality is probably the conceptual glue. Marxism, well-intentioned but difficult to apply via human agents, particularly in pre-"information age" societies, was, in part, about reducing economic disparity. Social liberalism has the same core motivation, with the emphasis on social normalcy, as opposed to material equality.


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