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6

It is always hazardous to talk in broad terms of ancient Greek philosophy. In the case of the world, Plato* and Aristotle believed in the existence of a single, eternal world which none the less they conceived differently. Anaximenes, Heracleitus, Diogenes and the Stoics appear to have believed in a continuous series of single worlds. Empedocles accepted a ...


6

I think there is a correlation basis, although I am hesitant to call it philosophical. Let me reframe the issue: there is no doubt that social/cultural and fiscal liberalism are logically independent, so the question is why they are correlated in populations statistically. The reason can be psychological, or historical, or philosophical, or all three ...


5

There were Epicureans in Judea, as we learn mostly, or entirely, from their opponents. As it turns out, Epicurus' name has the distinction of being the only1 philosopher named in the Mishnah (Avot 2:14), used to refer to a member of the school. Henry Fischel (Rabbinic literature and Greco-Roman philosophy pp. 2-3) lists the following evidence for ...


5

As noted above Epictetus was born a slave, and he was an "ancient" Greek, though after the classical period. Diogenes was born to an affluent family but lived on the streets as a homeless social scourge and was also, briefly, a slave. There were many later Cynics who followed his example, so one did not necessarily need wealth to ponder the cosmos, ...


4

Yes, Popper was a harsh critic of Historicism as represented by Hegel and Marx with their "belief that history develops inexorably and necessarily according to certain principles or rules towards a determinate end (as for example in the dialectic of Hegel, which was adopted and implemented by Marx)." For Popper's critique, see Popper and Historicism (from ...


4

This actually turns out to be a general philosophy lesson, more than anything specific on Nietzsche. The real answer is "The overman can be thought of as a centripetal force if that analogy works well." You have to flesh the analogy out before any statement can be made. In this case, Nietzsche's Übermensch is a tremendously complicated multi-faceted ideal....


4

The prime critic was Aristotle : 'Physics', VI. Plato does not set out Zeno's arguments but in his dialogue, 'Parmenides', there is in connexion with the paradoxes some argument or interplay between the Platonic Socrates and Zeno on the issue of whether there is a plurality of things or only the Parmenidean One : 'Parmenides', 127d-128e. It depends, of ...


4

I'm not sure whether 'prime time' is their time or our time. For our own time I'd nominate Sextus Empiricus (160 - 210 CE) who wrote subtly and coherently on a wide range of philosophical topics, and much of whose work remains - and remains in print in the Loeb Library. Every historian of ancient Greek philosophy is fully aware of Sextus Empiricus's work ...


4

To explain Foucault's method of archaeology it might be best to work from an example. In the history of economic thought there are various systems of of ideas : mercantislism, physiocracy, 'classical' economics, Marxist economics, the Austrian marginalists and so on and on. Now, one might examine any of these theories, say physiocracy (which held, to put ...


4

Two writers who have produced 'global' hypotheses about the features of polytheism are Jean-Pierre Vernant and Walter Burkert. Vernant identifies the following features: A god is a power that represents a type of action, a kind of force. Within the framework of a pantheon, each of these powers is defined not in itself as an isolated object but by virtue of ...


3

A good place to start is the two volume Histoire du Structuralisme (1991/2) by F. Dosse: it provides a context and a few chapters on Foucault in both books. In the late 70's quite a few people claimed to have always been "post-structuralists" but many of them, including Foucault, earlier were just "structuralists", a rather laudatory or at least fashionable ...


3

Marx is postulating the proletarian social revolution as the end of history. He does so because the proletariat is the first revolutionary class in history which lacks social property. By revolutionary class here we mean a class embodying a new set of relations of production (social behaviours) that will unfetter the productive forces (capacities of society ...


3

I think you'll find - you may well have done so already - that 'materialism' is the less frequently used term nowadays. It never really recovered from its association with pre-20th century conceptions of matter as 'inert substance shaped and formed by external sources' - or in Newton's words as of consisting of 'solid, massy, impenetrable, moveable particles'...


3

First, let me kill that idea. Anthropologists do not accept the idea that early humans were cave dwellers. While there have been a few groups of people who did, for the most part, caves are not very hospitable environments. They are dark, cold, and wet. A lot of material was found in caves because neanderthals and early anatomically modern humans used these ...


3

I don't think the question can be usefully answered in the round. If we assume that we have no certain knowledge, which means at least no beliefs which are immune from error, then neither science nor history can offer such knowledge. But you ask about degrees of certainty - whether the conclusions we draw from science are 'more certain' (? less uncertain, ...


3

Progress means: Movement to an improved or more developed state, or to a forward position. From this definition we can easily understand that since there is movement, 'Progress' is a subset of 'Change'. That means, for 'Progress' there must always be a 'Change'. And 'History' is (The study of or a record of) past events considered together, especially ...


2

To the contrary, the worker has to be almost completely immiserated and desparate before he will revolt on a large scale. Take for example the sailors at Kiel toward the end of WWI, they could go no further, they revolted, and then it spread across Germany very seriously as time progressed, really only the workers in Berlin and Munich knew any theory. Now ...


2

Presocratics in Greece Socrates is a false marker for the start of philosophy even in Greece. To begin, if he wrote anything, nothing has come down to us and it is possible (as tradition has it) that he wrote nothing. What little we know of Socrates' ideas and arguments has to be gleaned from Xenophon's Memorabilia of Socrates and the Platonic dialogues. ...


2

Ancient China and Ancient Greece, in particular, are notable in that they had similar traditions of elaborated, influential, systematic writings that are clearly identifiable as philosophical that appeared roughly around the same time. What philosophy that went on to develop in Europe traces directly back to the Greeks, through the Romans, and what ...


2

"Archon basileus" translates as "king magistrate" So says Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archon_basileus Socrates's trial does not seem to have had a presiding official in the sense of an American trial judge. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_of_Socrates Euthyphro was a character, with Socrates, in Plato's Euthyphro dialogue. The full surviving ...


2

1 The share of the population in the lower class will increase. 2 The share of the population in the middle class will go to zero. 3 The number of people in the upper class will converge towards a very small number. Horkheimer can hardly be made in stand in for '20th-century Marxists', whatever his views, acknowledgements or revisions. But let's take the ...


2

Was Shakespeare a member of the lower classes? For sure, not a noble. You can see : Lois Potter, The Life of William Shakespeare : A Critical Biography (Blackwell, 2012), page 2 and 3 : John Shakespeare [(William’s father) was] chamberlain or acting chamberlain of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1561 to 1565, [he] had been heavily involved with maintenance and ...


2

It is clearly a joke... Charles Harrington Elster does not seem to be an Ancient Greek Philosophy expert. If his work is about "words", I imagine that he has set up a "verbal joke" : see the Greek word lexicon : pertaining to words. And see also phago- : the Greek root for "eating". Thus Lexiphagoras may be read as "the word eater" or "the devourer of ...


2

The Categories, chap.7 /On Relatives/ contains a remarkable discussion in just a few pages and its author, supposedly Aristotle, might well be the first to have 'studied' asymmetric relations. So Aristotle distinguishes contrariety and reciprocation, adding further consideration on simultaneity. All relatives are 'reciprocated', but no all of them have '...


2

Part of the problem you are having lies in the way you are framing the issue, i.e., where you say: The worshiped gods [...] require the care of humans worshiping them at their "houses" (temples) on earth You've inverted the relationship. Gods do not need the care of humans on earth; humans want to appeal to the power that gods ostensibly have, and ...


2

To date, we have seen the Higgs boson (I believe) twice, and gravitons exactly zero times, and yet both of these are considered properly scientific concepts. So something in your presentation of 'empirical reliability' is decidedly off. Science is not really as data-driven as most people seem to believe. In science one makes a theory (often by looking at a ...


2

Standards are never universal or consistent enough to be anachronistic as such. In America, we have records of prominent founders acknowledging the wrong of slavery, even guilt and dread over this, and indeed abolitionism was part of the ethical milieu thereafter through the Civil War. Kant later, and las Casas earlier (and much more intensively), are ...


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