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To explain Foucault's method of archaeology it might be best to work from an example. In the history of economic thought there are various systems of of ideas : mercantislism, physiocracy, 'classical' economics, Marxist economics, the Austrian marginalists and so on and on. Now, one might examine any of these theories, say physiocracy (which held, to put ...


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I'm not sure whether 'prime time' is their time or our time. For our own time I'd nominate Sextus Empiricus (160 - 210 CE) who wrote subtly and coherently on a wide range of philosophical topics, and much of whose work remains - and remains in print in the Loeb Library. Every historian of ancient Greek philosophy is fully aware of Sextus Empiricus's work ...


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Was Shakespeare a member of the lower classes? For sure, not a noble. You can see : Lois Potter, The Life of William Shakespeare : A Critical Biography (Blackwell, 2012), page 2 and 3 : John Shakespeare [(William’s father) was] chamberlain or acting chamberlain of Stratford-upon-Avon from 1561 to 1565, [he] had been heavily involved with maintenance and ...


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It is clearly a joke... Charles Harrington Elster does not seem to be an Ancient Greek Philosophy expert. If his work is about "words", I imagine that he has set up a "verbal joke" : see the Greek word lexicon : pertaining to words. And see also phago- : the Greek root for "eating". Thus Lexiphagoras may be read as "the word eater" or "the devourer of ...


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The Categories, chap.7 /On Relatives/ contains a remarkable discussion in just a few pages and its author, supposedly Aristotle, might well be the first to have 'studied' asymmetric relations. So Aristotle distinguishes contrariety and reciprocation, adding further consideration on simultaneity. All relatives are 'reciprocated', but no all of them have '...


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Induction Inferring present and the future states or events from past states and events - the kind of activity you appear to have in mind in your opening sentences - is a form of induction. Popper on induction is a tangled topic but, to express a standard interpretation, Popper finds no proper use for induction in science : [As an empiricist he] ...


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I incline to distinguish historicism from determinism. In my view neither implies the other. Historicism As a historicist, I argued that human life was ineluctably historical, so explanations of ideas, texts, actions, and practices should rely on historical narratives, not appeals to formal classifications, correlations, systems, or models. (Mark ...


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William Rowan Hamilton's discovery of quaternions in the 19th century may be the first studied non-commutative relations. Here is Wikipedia: In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers. They were first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and applied to mechanics in three-dimensional ...


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That you are not able to find "Lexiphagoras" and I was not able to find "Alphasia" suggests that Charles Harrington Elster may have made this name and place up. Looking at the use of this name in There's a Word for It suggests Elster is not expecting us to take this reference seriously. For example, Elster quotes a nicely rhyming limerick as one of ...


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