13

One accepts the absurd because it is banal, like the weather: arbitrary but every-day. Take your title question. Why should you drink a cup of coffee, rather than killing yourself? Because, perhaps, you enjoy drinking coffee. But why should that matter? Well, it's a priority — and interestingly, because coffee is an acquired taste, it is a priority ...


13

Introductory remarks This is subject to debate and there is no definite answer. The general consensus is that no definite set of properties can possibly be given and if it is done, these sets are relative to the end they serve and the historical as well as the cultural context, i.e. we live in a "post-essentialist world" (Ramsey 2013) when it comes to the ...


12

Humans and other animals need to recognize favorable conditions and partners distinct from immediate prospects for obtaining a reward. It is likely that a sense of beauty is what accomplishes this. Although there are many cases of nonfunctional beauty, as long as they don't distract us too heavily, we will end up with partners who are less likely to be ...


7

It's specifically a concept from the French existentialist work of Sartre and de Beauvoir, and refers to the unwillingess of people to take responsibility for their choices and the self they create through their actions. It's difficult and frightening to admit we make our own choices, so we invent reasons to justify ourselves. In Sartrean ethics you have ...


6

Losing a limb really hurts. That's a crude but not unreasonable criterion for parts of our body we consider to be our body (skin inwards, basically) and parts we don't (hair, nails, dead skin). We get sense impressions that build up our knowledge of the world from organs with sensory receptors; we don't get any of that from hair. While the 'importance' ...


5

If you are looking for modern works, I believe the contemporary author Peter Russell has written on the subject (he approaches it from a metaphysical point of view), as has Daniel Dennett, but from a materialist point of view (meaning through neuropsychology). The Phenomology of Spirit by Hegel discusses the evolution and nature of consciousness, so it may ...


4

In the particular example given, its the importance of what is lost that is significant. I don't mind losing some hair - especially when I have gone for a haircut at a Barbers. That is the point of it after all. I would mind losing my limb - its something that I can't replace (and I'm not including prosthetics here) and is important for my everyday activity. ...


4

The answer is simpler than you think. "Fashion" is the effect, not the cause. Combine two separate concepts: First, that pleasure resulting from a certain aesthetic fades over time. So yes to your first question, it is the aesthetic value that changes. You can only eat ice cream so long until you get tired of eating it, even though nothing changed about ...


4

That's a false trichotomy. One can also (4) Recognize a non-universal source for meaning (5) Disagree that we are sure things are meaningless (6) Ignore philosophical arguments that assume that disharmony between what we want and believe is so desperately important that we should kill ourselves or leap into the arms of hypothetical superbeings to save us....


4

Even if we accept your basic assumption --that responsible fatherhood in human beings dates back only as far as the dawn of human societies --that doesn't imply it can't be part of an evolutionary process. Suppose that human societies have been around 10,000 years, and that being a good father provides a strong advantage to your children. That's plenty of ...


4

The idea that it exists to strengthen the patriarchy is silly; the concept of fatherhood directly benefits the female vastly more than the male. According to evolution, it likely came about as a consequence of human's extended childhood. Because of the immense amount of resources that a human child requires, and the fact that a human woman is very limited ...


4

The original German reads: "Du solltest Gewalt über dein Für und Wider bekommen". The capitalization in German is required, so in English it is an interpretation of the translator. 'das Für und Wider abwägen' is German idiom for weighing the pros and cons. Basically the text says: you should master your pros and cons; meaning, you should not stick to just ...


4

The traditional role of a taboo is prohibition of an action, not of discussion, but the two are often mixed when the term is used loosely, see e.g. Gao's study of English "taboo" words. Taboos against homicide or incest had obvious biological/social benefits. Volume 3 of a classical comparative study of mythology and religion, Frazer's Golden Bough, is ...


3

I think it might be instructive to reverse the premise; what would it be like if we assumed that humans were not corrupt, that is to say, actually were good and pure? If that were the case, there'd be no need for prescriptive ethics; morality would be self-enforcing. There'd be no conception of justice, as there would be no possibility of injustice. So, ...


3

Does not existentialism fit the third criteria? To "Accept the Absurd" is to accept the notion that humanity is incapable of determining whether or not there is greater meaning to life. Another prime example of this notion is apatheism - the idea that we are incapable of determining whether or not a higher power exists, and therefore that the pursuit of ...


3

This answer isn't actually mine, it's from an article on NewPhilosopher. I will paraphrase the article but all credit should go to the author of said article. We should start by recognising the obvious, that the claim is addressed to those who satisfy the quality of "being human". For Socrates, a human being should have the ability to eclipse basic desire ...


3

I'm not particularly convinced by Dawkins analogy, interesting though it is at first sight; it's a variant of Darwinism as a philosophy - as opposed to biology - applied to both culture and epistemology. One might call it a revival of social Darwinism, like Spencerism, on the cultural plane, interpreting culture broadly to include science, the arts and ...


3

You have noticed something very important I think. The logos ("word" will do, but it is an inadequate translation) is a sign, but is it really a mere sign, or does it actually participate, actively and ontologically with/in the godhead? If it participates the words of prayer have a real power flowing back and forth from this God. There is a saying in ...


3

Introduction The short answer is that the "Word of God" shouldn't be read as prayer. Within Biblical hermeneutics, there are two ways to interpret Biblical texts - either exegetically or eisegetically. That is - either one can read meaning out of the text and context into which it was delivered, or they can place their own ideas into the text, bending it ...


3

I think there are two main elements or aspects to Ortega's 'The Dehumanisation of Art' (La deshumanización del arte e Ideas sobre la novela, 1925; Princeton tr., 1968). The first can be illustrated by a passage from the book : A great man is dying. His wife is by his bedside. A doctor takes the dying man's pulse. In the background two more persons are ...


3

The answer is "yes." All forms are best at conveying emotion =) The idea of excluding multi-media mediums, however, points to a very strange distinction that one must draw. One must identify the senses which are being used to convey the piece, and ensure only one sense is used at a time. That depends on where we draw the lines between the senses, so on ...


3

Maria Kronfeldner rejects the possibility of an essentialist definition of human nature because biological evolution is a complex, dynamic and fluid process which produces populations rather than individuals, stable only in a specific time and place: given Darwinian ontology, there are no necessary and sufficient conditions for membership in a ...


2

Fundamentally, no; but it is a moment of change. Humans have always had to deal with information: their social environment - gossip, rumour etc; and formal knowledge - schooling and so on. One learns who and what to trust. It is institutions that verify & validate this. Newspapers, journals & universities. The internet obviously multiplies this ...


2

If we allow the "anthro" in "anthropocentric" to not mean human but rather "intelligent consciousness capable of communicating philosophical idea", then I see no way to avoid either anthropocentrism in some sense or asserting some sort of Platonic Idea. The argument is perhaps a little tired, but the fact is that all conceptual articulations and ...


2

I have no way of knowing for sure, but I've studied philosophy pretty extensively and two different works came to mind in reading your question. I think there's a good chance your professor may have been alluding to Hume On Miracles from Enquiry into Human Understanding. You can read about it here: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/miracles/ . The basic ...


2

As others have have already asked, what is your definition of perfection? It's a big question, especially when you ask whether humans can create anything which is perfect. It's useful to start with a little bit of etymology. "Perfection" comes from the Latin "perfectio" meaning "finished". But what does it mean for something to be finished? Things are what ...


2

Some food for thought: There is a saying that "the road to hell is paved with good intentions." So, what this means is that the definition of good versus evil has a blurry line between it. What if someone is 'corrupt' just so that he can pay off the medical bills of his parents? He would do anything it takes to protect his family. How would you brand this ...


2

Logic and philosophy alone don't get you very far since they do not have a standard definition of "evil", let alone "corrupt". One of the classical philosophical views on this is from Thomas Hobbes whose famous line "the life of man [will be] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short" highlights the plight of social interactions between not-overwhelmingly-...


2

Can you support your contention that a perception of beauty is unnecessary for survival? The beauty of a thing often is intimately related to its intrinsic characteristics. The fact that we cannot draw a direct line between between an object's attractiveness and its objective desirability in all cases does not mean that the ability to perceive beauty is not ...


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