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A halluncination is to have a perception in the awake state when there is no external stimulus. Colour is not a halluncination. Instead, it is the result of our processing of visual stimuli in the mind, see e.g., my answer to the previous question Is color intrinsic to light? Analogously, hearing tones is the result of our processing of auditive stimuli ...


4

"Intuition of pure number" is the intuition Poincare inherited from Kant's a priori form of perception in time. Kant recognized two forms of perception that produce synthetic a priori, and therefore "rigorous", knowledge, space an time. The former gives rise to the geometric intuition, and the latter to the arithmetical one. However, after the discovery of ...


4

There are two different schools of thought on the possibility of freewill (barring the third school which says we don't have freewill at all): Libertarian/Metaphysical freewill: Determinism and freewill are incompatible and we have freewill. The world is indeterministic and an agent is capable of choosing among multiple possible futures, i.e. the agent "...


4

Since most animals on earth are artificially selected for by humans Evolution works over many millenia, hence its important to think of a time framing. If one was to think of the current epoch, then your phrasing would be right, and this is why the Anthropocene is being considered currntly by International Geological Congress as an epoch of geological time; ...


3

To my understanding, intelligence is mostly viewed as a functional feature and hence not as an experiential one. For example, the Turing Test is suggested in Turing's original paper as a method by which we can determine if a machine is intelligent or not. A machine, according to Turing, can be treated as intelligent if it successfully simulates intelligent ...


3

I would recommend looking into Professor Bennet Helm. Free will and the nature of how we define it is his primary academic study. Link to item description The book, "Emotional Reason: Deliberation, Motivation, and the Nature of Value", poses that free will is a product of emotional attitudes, and not reliant of higher intellect. Prof. Helm has also used ...


3

It depends a bit on what you mean (this question seems vague to me) but it's certainly the case that we can approach knowledge without bias, which is what I think you're asking. Sometimes we have to introduce something like blind experiments in science, or have a friend read two books and explain them in their own words so that the author of the books doesn'...


3

You quote two definitions, one about intelligence, the other about thinking. A first difference of the definitions: Intelligence is a mental ability, while to think is a mental action. A broad definition of thinking equalizes thinking with conscious mental information processing. A narrow definition along the philosophical tradition decomposes thinking ...


3

There is no universally accepted reason to believe that our level represents, or is close to, a hard upper limit on "intelligence" (a notoriously difficult concept to give an uncontroversial definition of, by the way). Furthermore, it's trivially true that we don't know what we don't know --meaning that we cannot define the limits of our ignorance. There's ...


3

One of the most important causes of frequent confusion, is the difference between Artificial Intelligence and Artificial General Intelligence. Yes AI is pretty much just processing information but because intelligence has been redefined in this field. It's like how physicists use the term information in the context of entropy, it's a crucial, but somewhat ...


3

Intelligence is related sometimes (heard it in a philosophy meeting, Toulouse, France) to the ability to think and act coherently towards our deepest and most prioritary goal: survival. So, it is not really intelligent for humans to make money by cutting trees or killing animals, we're just digging our own grave. If an A-I entity would be able to survive and ...


2

A few possible (very partial) answers: On 1.: 'wisdom' if it can be anything in philosophy is probably something like being able to intuit the most applicable philosophical framework to understand a given situation in its context, potentially within a societal and long-term moral framework rather than a narrow short-term self-interest way. This might be ...


2

You are right: Einstein means the facts from observation. His point is that the researcher does not arrive at a theory by induction from the observational facts. But The intuitive grasp of the essentials or a large complex of facts leads the scientist to the postulation of a hypothetical basic law, or several such basic laws.


2

Short answer: We are still a long way from defining intelligence, and that is the real challenge. If we could accurately define it, then it would be easy to reverse engineer it and create artificial intelligence that matches "natural" intelligence (artificial coming from the fact that it is created by humans and not found naturally). I work in artificial ...


2

I'm going to tackle this more directly than I feel the other answers have done. Consider the following: broadly construed, harm in the ethical sense is something that can only happen to an agent - an entity with certain cognitive capacities (the ability to feel pleasure/pain, make decisions, etc. - incapacitated persons are a legal corner case I'm myself ...


2

The question is about the relationship of happiness and knowledge: So what leads to an objectively better and happier life and what negatives do too much or too little knowledge have? There are two observations to make up-front: It is not so important the quantity of knowledge as its accuracy. Being unhappy may be a good thing if it gets one thinking ...


2

If one uses the definition of analogy as a criterion, then obviously yes the two are analogous. They are unlike, and thus not identical, but can be compared because they have features in common. Most obvious is that both are understood as teleological but in different ways. It bears mentioning that you might want to peruse the article in the SEP: ...


2

Yes to analogy. No to conclusion. Probably the closest to an agreed definition of life is systems manifesting autopoeisis, the ability of a system to maintain and reproduce itself. The unit of replication is a complex topic Intelligence can broadly be linked to fittedness and resilience, and it is almost a lucky accident that at a certain point our brains ...


2

I can't answer this question directly because the question "what is intelligence?" is deeply philosophical and might not have an easy answer. But since you are interested in this because of AI: The field of AI is not, for the most part, concerned with making machines "intelligent" or "sentient" because these attributes can't ...


2

The nature of intelligence is a topic of much debate. We argue endlessly about cognitive behaviours in animals and whether some behaviour implies intelligence or not. Funnily enough, environmentalists and vivisectionists tend to disagree with each other, who'd have thought it. Try asking a fisherman and a vegan whether fish feel pain. As far as AI goes, back ...


1

I present before you two quotes or opinions about the relationships/difference between consciousness and intelligence- just for comparison. Consciousness is the ever-present, Absolute purely Spiritual entity which is independent of cerebral activity. But when asked about Mind, they say it's same as Consciousness while Mind is semi-Physical like that of ...


1

There are too many complex variables to make your question answerable. What works for one individual in a particular situation may not work for another. The maxim ignorance is bliss speaks volumes. As a long-time political activist, I find myself weighed down by the ever bigger socio-political-environmental problems weighing down on us. Although I despise ...


1

Much of the results from cloning any genius from the past will be based on his new upbringing. He may still develop the mental capacities he had achieved in the past given the method of his cloning: If you are talking about some sci-fi method where he is created as an adult, or raised brought to term and born then raised as a normal child. The results would ...


1

I would say that chasing happiness is not the primary goal. How many of the great thinkers, writers, composers, scientists etc. who we remember today were happy? I would say very few. The quest for knowledge is a difficult one and may not make you very "happy" or famous, but the quest for knowledge is certainly more rewarding for the individual. This value ...


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I think the key assumption here is "a game is a simulation just like we are in a simulation." The exact logical meaning of "just like" is key for deciding whether simulated violence is unethical. You have defined a class "person" in your logic. If that class includes the "simulated people" in a game, then it would be unethical to commit violence against ...


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Firstly, Turing tests are not objective. They only show that it is possible to deceive people. Compare to a 3D hologram. It can fool humans into thinking that the object is really there though that does not mean it is there (or that our world is a big hologram). Free will is not about the fact whether human interaction is programmable or not. It is hardly ...


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To draw a boundary around a 'thing' and say 'that is a thing and is apart from the rest of the universe' is a deception. You cannot have table without wood and you cannot have wood without a tree and you cannot have tree without the Sun and you cannot have the Sun without the Milky Way. And so it is, with a person having free will, and for an AI. So to ...


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