The title describes what is known as the doctrine of ancestral fault, with blood vengeance as an extreme manifestation. It was common in archaic societies, but was pushed out with the establishment of civic morality and law since antiquity. "The guiltless will pay for the deeds later: either the man's children, or his descendants thereafter" we still hear ...
There's several interlocking questions you're raising.
First, there are three major theories of why we punish crime as a society. You've identified two:
Reform - that the punishment is about rehabilitating the criminal (a view largely associated with Mill)
Deterrence - that by having punishments we decrease crime
Retribution - that crime requires ...
Here's an exposition of the difference :
The difference defined
A crucial feature of his theory of entitlement according to Nozick is the fact that his
theory is "historical" rather than being based on a "current time-slice" or "end state"
Principle. For a historical theory, whether a
distribution is just or not depends on how
it came about. ...
This account might help ('ASU' refers to Anarchy, State & Utopia) :
Nozick defines a patterned principle as a principle specifying that the distribution
of goods "is to vary along with some natural dimension" (ASU 156). Natural dimensions are basic qualities of the person, such as need, desert or talent, that are identified by ...
I'm not sure that Frank Herbert is adding anything new to the debate here. Equality is an ideal, and so by it's very nature, can never be fully realised; it's something to aim at, and to inform the political culture.
It's a common-place that different people have different capacities; nevertheless, in liberal democracies we generally assert that every man ...
Unice has no debt or obligation to anyone but Rob, who gave him the college money. Rob in turn has a debt and obligation to Paul, but since Paul is dead Rob has an obligation to repay John. But since Rob is dead who will repay him? Should people be held accountable for the financial debts of their late parents? Whatever that answer, contrast it with the ...