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Joe, welcome to PSE. Kant and the rational ChristopherE is right. Kant's requirement that we treat others always as ends and never simply as means is retricted to rational beings. The class of sentient beings is wider than the class of rational beings, and Kant never applies the requirement to treat others always as ends to the entire sentient class. It'...


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Simply put, Universalizability is a principle expressing a form of symmetry in all natural laws. A law that does not have equal (universal) applicability is not a law, but a whim. You can choose to do something (we call that a maxim or a policy), but what effect does it have if everyone acts in the same way that you do (follows the same policy, aka ...


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Kant's universalizability principle (theory), ... tells us that if a course of action cannot be universally adopted it must be morally impermissible. So in that case what is the actual standing of LGBT? Philip makes a good point that one's un-enacted sexual desires or background inclinations of various sorts do not cause a person to commit evil, or any ...


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Moral questions are complex, and Kant both realized and exemplified this, as he wrote multiple volumes on morality. Your presumption that Kant's thinking boils down to one simple algorithm is - untrue. Kant looked at multiple issues in his moral thinking, including the effect on oneself, the effect on others, and the genralizability of an action. So, ...


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No, you cannot. As I explained here, that's just not how the categorical imperative works. 1. For any application of the categorical imperative, you need a maxim A maxim is a general practical rule which has the structure "If I am in situation X and want to achieve the goal Y, I will do Z." - a structure which hardly is to bring into conformity with ...


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Preliminaries You put Kant on his head here. Probably you think that sentences like "Thou shalt not lie" were unquestionable for Kant. But that's not what the categorical imperative is. For Kant, the categorical imperative is a single, abstract principle that is the core of all "imperatives" like the one mentioned. The categorical imperative is: [A]ct ...


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Conifold's comment is elegant and helpful. You also asked for pointers to posts or relevant articles. I don't have one specific thing but reading around the subject can be really worthwhile and help attain a deeper understanding. If you're under time pressure this may not be so helpful but you can always pick and choose. I would suggest - even if it sounds ...


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The philosopher that coinded the concept of " a priori synthetic judgment" , that is, Kant, held the thesis that metaphysics proper does not contain such judgments. According to Kant, there is no substantive possible knowledge regarding (1) the Soul ( the alledged thinking substance) (2) the World (3) or God. But, with a more modest meaning of " ...


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I think one could distinguish : unity as a special category ( unity, plurality, totality) unity as " originally synthetic unity of aperception"; this unity is " transcendental" in the original sense, that is, above all categories unity as Idea of Reason ( imaginary focus at which Reason is aiming in its effort directed at the " unconditionned " or "...


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