15

Wittgenstein in his intermediate period provided a response, before the age of AI research and Searle's objections. In a nutshell: semantics is another syntax. Words only mean as role players in a linguistic calculus, and their meaning reduces to the collection of rules governing their use in the calculus. Of course, he was thinking of mathematics and ...


11

It is more than that. Even if we take the Galileo's metaphor literally, he is suggesting that there is a language of mathematics, specifically geometry, not that mathematics, as such, is a language: "Philosophy is written in this grand book — I mean the universe — which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first ...


9

The answer is straightforward in the context of Chomsky's universal grammar, which music does not fit. However, the innate grammar structures postulated by Chomsky were not as universally encountered outside of the major European and Oriental languages, and the conception has little purchase with modern linguists, see Does majority of linguists accept ...


8

Chomsky was famously called out by Dennett in Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, who saw “signs of Chomsky’s agnosticism — or even antagonism — towards Darwinism”, and added that "if Darwin dreaders want a champion who is himself deeply and influentially enmeshed within science, they could do no better than Chomsky". This is over the top, but some Chomsky's ...


7

I think your evaluation of the problem is accurate: depending on the theory being used, "the oldest man in the world" can or cannot die. The descriptive theory says in short that meaning of a name is effectively identical to the descriptions people associate with them. For example, "the person typing out this answer" and "the person looking at this monitor" ...


7

I think it is very insightful of you to want to learn to be a better critical thinker. That action in and of itself makes me think you are already more of a critical thinker than many others -- as merely a freshman you are carefully thinking about and planning what will best help you in the future. Not the Answer You're Looking For Unfortunately, philosophy ...


7

In the context of the linked interview, both Chomsky and his interviewer have an understanding of the term "language" that excludes music from it. To put it as a syllogism: (P) All language activities involve the use of words, whether those words are expressed externally (spoken/written) or internally (your internal monologue). (P) Music composition does ...


6

The philosophical concept you're looking for is foundationalism; it hasn't always been neccessary - after all arithmetic was done and number theory pursued for two Millenia before a foundational movement took hold. There are other foundations of mathematics; one that is growing in importance is based on category theory. Philosophy has pretty much ...


6

Saussure is playing with two traditional dicotomies : the aristotelian : form/matter (their union is the substance) and the "(traditional) linguistic : form/content. See CLG, Ch.4: [ page 156 ] La langue comme pensée organisée dans la matière phonique. The langue is a "structured" whole, that organizes the thought (pensée, idées) as well as the sound (...


5

The short answer is no, Chomsky doesn't reject evolution; the longer answer goes like this: Chomsky is arguing that it doesn't give sufficient insight into the nature of a 'natural organ of language', the existence of which has been won, as admitted by Dennett in this review of his book by the biologist Maynard Smith, who also agrees with Dennett on this. ...


5

Not entirely sure what you mean by "linguistic philosophical distinction" nor am I completely clear on the origins, though a few websites do seem to validate sourcing it to H.H. Price. I am going to assume that "faith-in" and "faith-that" are used synonymously to the pair you mention. The difference in philosophy of religion and ...


4

If "language" is defined as a means to convey information, knowledge, feelings, etc. from a source to a receptor, then mathematics certainly meets the requirement. From this perspective, mathematics is no different than music, French, Fortran, Basic, Art, etc.


3

A is probably B B is X Therefore, A must be X Is deductively invalid, so it would fall under the general fallacy type of invalid argument (assuming that it is presented as a deductive argument). As an inductive argument, the "must" would make it fallacious on the grounds that the conclusion is not supported by the premises. However, I don't think anyone ...


3

One minor complication, is "the oldest man in the world" a name or a description? It reads to me like a description. In that case the question becomes whether descriptions can be rigid designators. Kripke, in arguing against the descriptive theory of names in Naming and Necessity held that descriptions couldn't rigidly designate. That was one of his ...


3

I'm not aware of a formal definition of proposition, and the issue is highly contentious, but one way to think about them is as follows. Take a sentence like "Clarissa is a fish". You can believe this, as in the sentence, "I believe Clarissa is a fish". You can hope it: "I hope Clarissa is a fish." You can doubt it: "I doubt Clarissa is a fish". These are ...


3

The meaning of a sentence seems to me to be a relation between the sentence and something which is beyond the sentence. A senseless sentence is just a sentence, a mere sentence . A meaningful sentence is somehow more than a mere sentence. It is so by being related, in a way that a senseless sentence is not. A meaningful sentence is related to "the external ...


3

I highly recommend taking philosophy courses --I entered college planning on majoring in engineering, and left as a philosophy major. Please be aware, however, that philosophy courses vary widely based on the teacher and the school (because there is no universal consensus on which philosophical approaches are correct and important). With that in mind, you ...


3

I would add to Mozibur's answer that several of the historically notable philosophers have tried to build complete philosophical systems from the ground up. Look at Kant and early Wittgenstein as examples. Indeed one could argue that attempts to build mathematics from the ground up the way Russell and Whitehead did was inspired partially by the philosophical ...


3

Lacan's views are based on Roman Jakobson's analysis of language: “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances”, page 49-on. According to Jakobson: Speech implies a selection of certain linguistic entities and their combination into linguistic units of a higher degree of complexity. At the lexical level this is readily apparent: the ...


3

According to Psychology Today Music is a universal language. Or so musicians like to claim.... [But is it?] That depends on what you mean by “universal” and what you mean by “language.” Every human culture has music, just as each has language. So it’s true that music is a universal feature of the human experience. At the same time, both music and linguistic ...


3

I haven't read Kripke's Naming & Neccessity, however the linked article quotes Wittgenstein from his Philosophical Investigations: There is one thing of which one can say neither that it is a metre, and nor that it is not a metre - and that is the standard metre kept in Paris. But this of course is not to ascribe some extraordinary property to it, but ...


3

Unfortunately, we do not have a satisfactory theory of meaning (semantics) of natural languages, i.e. of understanding words, or even of using them (pragmatics). Kripke's causal theory of reference for proper names comes closest to a consensus, but only if it is narrowly restricted to proper names, and even then it is not too close. The alternative theory, ...


3

Regarding Sense and Denotation, you are right: the source is the philosophy of Gottlob Frege : The reference (German: Bedeutung) of a proper name is the object it means or indicates (bedeuten), its sense is what the name expresses. This approach is aimed at a "fine" analysis of what is usually named : meaning. With reference to it, we may use denotation ...


3

While the intension/extension distinction is ancient and unproblematic, the details of sense/reference (denotation) distinction are controversial, and are still evolving. I will suggest here a simplified version. The sense/denotation distinction is similar to the intension/extension distinction, just that the intension/extension distinction applies to ...


3

Daniel Chandler wrote a book Semiotics: the Basics and also supplies an online version here. For a large part of English speaking academia, after Chomsky's reformulation of linguistics into the field that it is today, semiotics became something of a minor topic. At the very least it is not studied in those circles the same way it was studied when Pierce and ...


3

You can do what you want in the framework of Heim & Kratzer's Semantics in Generative Grammar; 'some' is treated in section 6.4 as you describe it. [[some snake]] = [[some]]([[snake]]) = λg . ∃x such that x is a snake and g(x) = 1 Some of the other words raise some complicated questions. Heim & Kratzer treat 'is' as a copula as vacuous in section ...


3

Thoughts come from nowhere and from everywhere! Both - both contain an element of truth. Subjectively, our thoughts come from nowhere: they just pop into our heads or emerge in the form of words leaving our mouths. Objectively, we can say that thoughts emerge from neural processes and that neural processes come from everywhere. What one means by this ...


3

A good place to start is the two volume Histoire du Structuralisme (1991/2) by F. Dosse: it provides a context and a few chapters on Foucault in both books. In the late 70's quite a few people claimed to have always been "post-structuralists" but many of them, including Foucault, earlier were just "structuralists", a rather laudatory or at least fashionable ...


2

The answer to your question is an absolute yes. If every man on Earth died, the oldest would have died, so it can happen.


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