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7

Natural rights and human rights originally come from different vocabularies. It's not fair to construe natural rights as "simply a less developed and more concise version of what we now consider human rights." First, I want to start by pointing out an important but crucial ambiguity in the term "natural rights." Viz., the problem is that "nature" can mean ...


7

Frege is the founder of a program called logicism that aimed to reduce all of mathematics to logic. In order to reduce mathematics to logic Frege had to expand what is meant by logic. Before him Locke, Kant and others understood by logic only Aristotle's syllogistic, which is a manipulation of simple implications (syllogisms). Frege's Logic went much further,...


6

The source of differences between Hobbes’ and Locke’ social contracts is their differing conceptions of the state of nature. For Hobbes absolute freedom is all that individuals have in the state of nature. Each can take whatever she wants from others. In the state of nature, there are "No arts; no letters; no society... worst of all, [there are] continual ...


6

How about this? The celebrated Arab commentator Avicenna (ibn Sīnā, 980–1037) confronts the LNC [Law of Noncontradiction] skeptic...: “As for the obstinate, he must be plunged into fire, since fire and non-fire are identical. Let him be beaten, since suffering and not suffering are the same. Let him be deprived of food and drink, since eating and ...


5

Frege's thesis was not that mathematics as a whole was analytic, just that arithmetic (the theory of whole numbers) was so. Frege criticized Kant about arithmetic, but he agreed with Kant that geometry was synthetic. As to that Pythagoras' theorem cannot be deduced from the definition of a triangle alone, there is surely no dispute. We shall do well in ...


5

Locke's tabula rasa has a bit of trick to it, because Locke did not assume, as a radical skeptic would, that everything about a person's nature is blank (thus requiring society to doodle on it in any way it pleases); Locke believed in the validity of reason as an innate human faculty that assists us to perceive various kinds of value. Although Locke is in ...


5

See An Essay Concerning Human Understanding : Book II, Chapter VIII by John Locke. Primary qualities of bodies. Qualities thus considered in bodies are, First, such as are utterly inseparable from the body, in what state soever it be ; and such as in all the alterations and changes it suffers, all the force can be used upon it, it ...


4

Kant brought into the epistemological discussion at least the following fundamental concepts, which are not present in Locke's epistemology: 1) Constructivist epistemology: We create or construct knowledge from the input of our senses by two capabilites of the human mind: intuition and categories. Knowledge is not an image of the outside world but the ...


4

I think the difference between Locke and Kant is captured in the primary/secondary quality distinction: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary/secondary_quality_distinction Locke's view is just a step beyond naive realism. It is in some sense, our modern everyday view. Although he said we couldn't know the true nature of things, he thought position, motion, ...


4

Regarding the connection between Idealism and Phenomenology The Phenomenology of Mind (sic!) by Hegel is considered to be the climax of German Idealism (and probably idealism as a whole) and uses many phenomenological examples, e.g. in Chapter II "salt" as white, having a cubic shape and tartness (etc.).: This salt is a simple "here" and is at the same ...


4

Not exactly. We can consider the propositional valid argument called Hypothetical syllogism as a (derived) rule of inference. We call it "derived", because in standard presentations of propositional logic we can derive it from more basic ones, like Modus Ponens. In modern terms, syllogism is a fragment of first-order logic, the so-called Monadic predicate ...


3

David Hume wrote this line in his character Cleanthes's voice, in Part One of Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion: Whether your scepticism be as absolute and sincere as you pretend, we shall learn by and by, when the company breaks up: we shall then see, whether you go out at the door or the window; and whether you really doubt if your body has gravity, ...


3

There are two related major differences between Locke and Hume, their focus and their conception of science. Locke's is focused on the knowledge new experimental science provides, he is interested in the epistemologically clarifying the status of this knowledge, but he largely takes most of it for granted (e.g. he accepts Newton's corpuscular theory at face ...


3

There are significant differences betweens the epistemologies of Locke and Aristotle. For one thing, they differ as to what the objects of knowledge are. For Aristotle, what we know are essences; how we know them are that we abstract the form of a substance. For Locke, we know secondary qualities and infer primary qualities. To invoke a different vocabulary,...


3

In my view, the labor theory of value hasn't been dis-proven so much as it has simply fallen out of favor, for essentially practical reasons. It is helpful to make the distinction between price and value, or to use Marx's terms, between exchange-value (the amount something is worth in money terms) and value (the average amount of labor time socially ...


3

Background Locke's justification of the right to private property is based on the Christian paradigm, as evidenced by the citations from the Bible in his work. The question that Locke wanted to answer in his book was this: “Given the paradigm (i.e., God created the world for all humanity to share in commune), how can privatization be justified? Locke ...


3

You are comparing across the centuries two philosophers with different preconceptions. But I think I detect the core of your question; I offer the following answer. Textual references are to Aristotle, The Politics, Sinclair, T. A. (Translator); Saunders, Trevor J. (Revised by). Published by Penguin Random House. ISBN 10: 0140444211 ISBN 13: 9780140444216. ...


3

Locke on power There is a useful exposition by Michael Ayers : The idea of power is formed as follows: The mind . .. concluding from what it has so constantly observed to have been, that the like changes will for the future be made in the same things, by like agents, and by the like ways, considers in one thing the possibility ...


2

I can only give a brief overview for the Marxist definition of Imperialism as I don't know enough about the term as used in classical political theory. The Wikipedia entry may be better suited for that. The classical Marxist analysis of Imperialism (though I don't know if this was Lenin, or Luxembourg, or Marx himself) states that the development of ...


2

"Natural rights" refer to the right to do (and it is by the nature of being human that humans have rights, which is how "human rights" and "natural rights" get equated). "Human rights" as used in the OPs reference and in most current usages include various rights to have, which is how people can now speak of a right to be provided an education, be provided ...


2

I think of their positions as being related the same way different degrees of political liberalism are. Locke is a Reformer: Much of Locke's thinking pays attention to ongoing agreements. He imagines states/professions/religions all have a built-in implicit contract. It is not his place to find a foundation for science because science already has a ...


2

Locke is discussing the "confutation" of materialism from a dualist point of view, like that of Descartes. The key-point of D's metaphysics is the mind-body distinction: [T]here is a great difference between the mind and the body, inasmuch as the body is by its very nature always divisible, while the mind is utterly indivisible. For a Cartesian, the "...


2

One additional note. Kant explored the a priori nature of interpreting the external world as more or less limited to the human understanding internally, whereas Locke didn't dispute that "things-in-themselves" exist in an established medium, IN SPACE and externally - regardless of whether a human being is conscious of them or not. Here's an excerpt from an ...


2

I haven't looked at any Locke in a long time, but let me grope around bit. First, you are right that they are not as distinctly defined as we tend to think, partly because it was Kant who sorted his predecessors into the "rationalist-empiricist" slots to clear the scrub for his own work. But I think the similarities are somewhat superficial. Locke, ...


2

The apparent need of the soul to always think, that Locke struggles with, seems to reflect the influence of Descartes (Locke was born in 1632, 36 years after Descartes). It was Descartes's influential thesis that the soul just is a thinking substance. That is, that the whole being of the soul consists in thinking. And this seems to entail the (apparently ...


2

I should say that some fairly significant differences separate Locke and Hume. 1 LOCKE : 'Experience : in that all our knowledge is founded'. But for Locke experience has a dual nature; it has two sources. 'Our observations employed either about external sensible things, or about the internal operations of our mind, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, ...


2

I doubt if 'who walk in a road' has special significance. Locke's idea appears to be that children have a capacity and tendency to ask deep and basic or just awkwardly demanding questions, through sheer naivety and lack of education, which the sophisticated grown-ups who talk easily among themselves, 'in the road' or elsewhere, have long since ceased to ask ...


2

Michael James provides a survey of the history of racism prior to Hume. He mentions that proto-racism may have been present among the ancients based on work by Benjamin Isaac and Denise McCoskey: Thus, Benjamin Isaac (2004) and Denise McCoskey (2012) contend that the ancient Greeks and Romans did hold proto-racist views that applied to other groups which ...


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