New answers tagged

0 votes

How do you prove that a logic system is sound?

How do you prove that a logic system is sound? I am aware of the fact that a logic system must be sound, in order to be useful. And there is your answer. I understand “soundness” to mean “that which ...
user avatar
  • 4,814
0 votes

How do you prove that a logic system is sound?

To prove actually implies to use logic. If somebody proves logic system is sound that must mean logic system is sound; but only on the basis of logic (since he is proving it by means of logic). But ...
user avatar
  • 3,055
0 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

Going a little bit outside philosophy domain and all those deep and knowledgeable answers already provided, here are some of the statements that always trigger my pseudoscience alarm: Claiming to be '...
user avatar
1 vote

Science vs pseudoscience

source and additional information: https://thinkingispower.com/11-characteristics-of-pseudoscience/?fbclid=IwAR0WWm37kMHrL_qYGf0B4Yb-VkYmlh_RtFHshhygiA3Xsp7LhBQvO3oxrwk
user avatar
  • 111
0 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

Yes, broadly there are two ways of testing what is science… First, what studies have been published to support the idea you're challenging, and how scientific were they? To go further, to what extent ...
user avatar
-1 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

I think most of these subjects are very complex, to call the entirety of such subjects science or pseudoscience would be wrong. I rather think that the science or pseudoscience tag can only be given ...
user avatar
2 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

tl;dr– As a litmus-test, you can see how experts in a topic react when one of their field's well-established predictions is contradicted by experiment: If they're scientific: They may be fascinated ...
user avatar
  • 1,900
0 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

Pseudoscience is often built upon a scientific basis but the logic isn't sound. E.g. Science proves that gluten triggers inflammation in some people and has no essential nutrients. Bread is a major ...
user avatar
  • 111
1 vote

If there are theories of everything for science, are there equations of everything for math?

Once upon a time, set theorists began to tinker with, and then put some of their weird hopes in, things called nontrivial elementary embeddings. They're nontrivial because they're not "the ...
user avatar
0 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

I'm not sure this will meet the standards of the pipe-smoking philosophers out there but here's what I would consider the minimum standard for a claim to be 'scientific': It is falsifiable Attempts ...
user avatar
7 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

Science is to pseudoscience as truth is to bullshit. The key feature of pseduoscience is not whether it is scientific. It's that it doesn't care. Just as bullshit might happen to contain truth or lies,...
user avatar
  • 331
2 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

There is indeed a simple litmus test: The presence/absence of scientific rigor. Any science that is worth its salt will, within the boundaries of its subject measure facts build theories test ...
user avatar
3 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

Science involves demonstrable claims, concrete scientific studies with statistically significant results, going with the evidence and not making unwarranted assumptions. Pseudoscience involves claims ...
user avatar
10 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

While you already got the very long (and good) answers showing you all the problems with the term "pseudo science" from a deep philosophical viewpoint, there are "litmus tests" ...
user avatar
  • 1,052
4 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

VERY SHORT ANSWER We bin aspects of our world into categories, but our binning always has fuzzy edges. You will not find a bombproof definition of science vs pseudoscience. A little elaboration ...
user avatar
  • 4,824
10 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's article on Pseudoscience: There is widespread agreement for instance that creationism, astrology, homeopathy, Kirlian photography, dowsing, ufology, ...
user avatar
  • 11.4k
4 votes

Loops in logic and reasoning

There are cases in science where it is hard to say where the reasoning is grounded. For example, "survival of the fittest" is meant to convey an impression of general sorts of advantages, ...
user avatar
29 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

This question is closely related to a problem in philosophy of science known as the demarcation problem. A good starting point for broad overview would be the SEP article. To answer you question ...
user avatar
  • 834
-1 votes

Science vs pseudoscience

The concept of 'pseudoscience' traces back to Karl Popper's theoretical framework, which has largely been abandoned by the philosophy of science. It's importance is only historical; no one should ...
user avatar
1 vote

What exactly is a first-order logic?

First order predicate logic is based on propositional logic (which is also called 0th order predicate logic). The Logical Operators of Propositional (0th-Order Predicate) Logic: Negation: ~ ...
user avatar
0 votes

Is it scientific or a logical error to claim something is true because I can't think of another explanation

Here’s a correct conclusion: A explains X. Nothing else but A can explain X. Therefore A is the reason for X. Here’s an incorrect conclusion: A explains X. I cannot think of anything but A that can ...
user avatar
  • 4,230
1 vote

Laws of excluded however-many things

I cannot speak to any of the concerns which led to your question. However, I can say something. With regard to material connectivity, inclusive disjunction is linearly separable whereas exclusive ...
user avatar
  • 21
0 votes

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

Recently, I read an Amazon review by one Robert W. Sawyer which fully expresses my own deliberations in its last paragraph, https://www.amazon.com/Defending-Axioms-Philosophical-Foundations-Theory-...
user avatar
  • 11
1 vote

What is the physical interpretation of a Godel sentence?

This is not complicated. It simply says that there can never be a provably complete unified theory. But this is nothing new. Popper characterised a properly scientific theory as one that can be ...
user avatar
2 votes

If math is so deductive, why is it so hard to discover new math?

There are already many good answers to this question. In particular, Nullius in Verba has described that the complexity of finding the derivation becomes exponentially higher with the length of the ...
user avatar
11 votes

If math is so deductive, why is it so hard to discover new math?

“Doing mathematics” or “discovering new math” is not the same as “giving new formal mathematical deductions”. Here is an analogy: Why is it hard to write new literature, or new poetry? It’s extremely ...
user avatar
12 votes

If math is so deductive, why is it so hard to discover new math?

I think the premise of the question is false. Actually, it's easy to discover new math. Here's one way to find some new math. Take a sheet of paper and write down a bunch of "nonsense" ...
user avatar
10 votes

If math is so deductive, why is it so hard to discover new math?

To elaborate on Nullius in Verba's answer (this started as a comment but became too long!). You can think of each step in a proof as an application of a valid rule of deductive inference to the axioms ...
user avatar
  • 834
48 votes

If math is so deductive, why is it so hard to discover new math?

If the rules of chess are so simple, why is it so hard to beat a grandmaster? The answer is the 'combinatorial explosion'. You have a small and well-defined set of moves you can make at each step. Let'...
user avatar
6 votes

If math is so deductive, why is it so hard to discover new math?

Math proofs are deductive, but the discovery of math proofs is an abductive process which requires a healthy exercise of expertise and intuition. Mathematical argumentation, like all argumentation, ...
user avatar
  • 11.4k
10 votes
Accepted

Are there any established logical symbols for merely possible and contingently true?

There is no established symbol, but some authors introduce their own. Girle in Modal Logics and Philosophy, p.9 uses ∇ for (derived) contingency operator, i.e. ∇p:= ◊p ∧ ◊¬p, he also has the dual Δp:= ...
user avatar
  • 41k
3 votes

Are there any established logical symbols for merely possible and contingently true?

I suspect that there's a good chance that somewhere, someone has written about modal logic such that their system takes contingency as a primitive, and uses a "new" symbol for this. That, or ...
user avatar
1 vote

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

Logic, in one view, are those rules by which we can go from one truth to another. It's about valid modes of reasoning. It's what Aristotle called prior analytics. Logic, in another view, is about the ...
user avatar
4 votes

What is the relation between abductive reasoning and fallacy?

I'll weigh in validating Cort Ammon's answer (it depends on the context of the abduction) and provide some examples. P1. Whenever it rains, the streets get wet. P2. The streets are wet now. C. ...
user avatar
  • 11.4k
0 votes

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

Logic is the formal expression of the rules of reason. Our reason uses Logic to find what is true or false. More on truth here. Many philosophers sustained the position that Logic is tautological, ...
user avatar
  • 4,824
3 votes

What is the relation between abductive reasoning and fallacy?

Is abductive reasoning a logical fallacy? Abduction is certainly not a logical fallacy. Abduction is the reasoning that if ϕ ⇒ ψ is true, then ϕ is ipso facto a possible explanation for the fact that ...
user avatar
  • 3,795
2 votes

What is the relation between abductive reasoning and fallacy?

Abudctive reasoning is not a logical fallacy. Abductive reasoning is drawing probable inference from context and experience. Note the word probable. Abductive reasoning does not produce logical ...
user avatar
  • 617
4 votes

What is the relation between abductive reasoning and fallacy?

It depends on how you're selling it. A formal logical fallacy requires that you make an assertion that does not follow from the rules of inference you are using. If you make an abductive inference ...
user avatar
  • 17.3k
0 votes

What is the relation between abductive reasoning and fallacy?

It's stated right there in the wikipedia article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abductive_reasoning#Abduction As such, abduction is formally equivalent to the logical fallacy of affirming the ...
user avatar
  • 1,006
1 vote
Accepted

What is the physical interpretation of a Godel sentence?

First read this post which gives not only a full proof of the generalized incompleteness theorem, but also an explicit independent sentence W'. This sentence asserts that some concrete program (which ...
user avatar
  • 610
0 votes

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false? What kinds of logic are there, then, and what would it mean to claim that logic is false (or true). What would it mean? Would it even make sense ...
user avatar
  • 4,814
1 vote

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

One way to interpret (alleged) topic neutrality in logic is to think of pure logic sentences/propositions as schematic sentences. Depending on the degree of schematism to a pure sentence's name, one ...
user avatar
0 votes
Accepted

Do all questions involve presuppositions, or just, "If X, then Y?" questions?

My answer would be yes, all questions presuppose, and what they presuppose, particularly as a statement logically or metaphysically prior, is essentially an abductive inference to be drawn. One is at ...
user avatar
  • 11.4k
0 votes

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

Logic is a mental faculty and as such it is neither true nor false. The right question is whether logic is useful or not to us. It is apparent that logic allows any community of human beings to ...
user avatar
  • 3,795
2 votes

Do all questions involve presuppositions, or just, "If X, then Y?" questions?

I would be inclined to say there are always presuppositions, and not just with questions, but with categorical propositions. A presupposition of the instruction, "Count to 10" is that it ...
user avatar
  • 15.7k
2 votes

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

Logics might be understood as systems of the truth of propositions. And, it's tempting to apply what we know about logical statements, that they can be true or false generally, to the system of ...
user avatar
  • 11.4k
2 votes

Difference between fallacies and biases

A fallacy is flawed reasoning. For instance, if one concludes that a math proof is correct, not on the merits of the steps of the proof, but because a famous mathematician is providing it, the ...
user avatar
  • 11.4k
5 votes

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

It doesn't really make sense to say that logic can be true or false. A system of logic can have properties such as being sound and complete. A logic is semantically sound if it only proves sentences ...
user avatar
  • 15.7k
0 votes

Decision and volition: Can an act ever be voluntary in the absence of a decision to perform it?

From MW's 'voluntary': 1 : proceeding from the will or from one's own choice or consent a voluntary action voluntary cooperation 2 : unconstrained by interference : self-determining a voluntary ...
user avatar
  • 11.4k
1 vote
Accepted

Is there any relevance to set theory and level of truthfulness when comparing the truth values across several logic systems?

Let P be a statement. Then, we can find arbitrarily many logics where P is true: take P as an axiom, tonk operator, inconsistent logic, etc. So in some sense no. But, also, there are statements that ...
user avatar
  • 1,010

Top 50 recent answers are included