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▻ MARXISM AS DIAGNOSIS Marx and Engels were political and economic theorists and revolutionaries who analysed the nature of capitalism as it stood in their time - 150 years ago - and diagnosed its inherent faults as these appeared to them. Though capitalism has transformed itself in many ways it is still an economic system in which the main pattern of ...


12

Nietzsche mocked German idealists at length, but I think calling him a materialist is a bridge too far, same as for all his anti-Christianity it is not clear that he was an atheist. He inherited his metaphysics from Schopenhauer, transforming his World Will into will to power, who can be seen as irrationalizing Hegel's Absolute Geist with a side of that "...


10

Part of the issue here is that the people heavily quoting Marx and Engels, and building statues to them, presumably are supporters of their views and hence they do not interpret their ideology as a failure. It is fair to say that Marx and Engels represent two of the primary theorists of socialist ideas and so they are still popular among socialists. (You ...


8

So something strange I've been thinking lately is that Marx & Engels are still pretty popular figures, even though their ideologues CAN be interpreted to be failures. They have numerous statues and continue to be cited over and over again, even though their ideas COULD [be] argued to not be very good. Yes, it can be argued that socialism is a ...


7

One should keep in mind two points. First, historical materialism in its traditional form is later Marx, taking final shape in Das Kapital, the theory of alienation is young Hegelian Marx of 1844 Manuscripts, and the "species-essence" is borrowed from his left Hegelian predecessor, Feuerbach. In 1845 Theses On Feuerbach Marx reinterprets him in the general ...


7

▻ MARX AND CONTEMPORARY BIOLOGY Marx knew nothing of the findings of present-day evolutionary psychology, neurophysiology, neurochemistry and ethology, and of the empirically-based information they provide about human nature. So much is obvious. But we need to be aware of his normative stance towards human nature. He did not offer, or claim to put forward,...


6

You might be interested in Alexandre Kojève's Introduction to the Reading of Hegel. The first chapter is available on the site DBK recommended (www.marxists.org). Kojève has a few other works of note (though only the Introduction and Outline of a Phenomenology of Right have been translated into English--though The Concept, Time, and Discourse is supposed to ...


6

The site you link to (marxism.org) has lots of freely available material: Index of Marxists.org Hegel Archives Some Helpful Reference Materials from Marxists.org In particular you might want to have a look at these real classics: Marxists.org Criticisms of Hegel Marx and Engels wrote copiously on Hegel themselves. Marxists.org Archive of Marx on Hegel ...


6

Newtons theory of mechanics is deterministic (in both directions of time). This was the great surprise as it goes against our immediate perception, and also importantly against the theology of the time - Christianity. There man is free, and freedom is construed morally. I doubt Newton took his own theories for the whole of reality. Being a theologian, (in ...


5

I'm not sure that Marx directly addresses the question you're asking, i.e., how consciousness is precisely accounted for or by what process it might arise. However, he does stress that consciousness is not something pre-given (as in the cogito) but something that arises out of particular circumstances. Thus, to pick on The German Ideology: The production ...


5

Another quick, maybe too quick, comment (or series of comments.) My first impulse, perhaps just an atmospheric tangent, would be to look into certain parts of the Grundrisse, in particular the fragment on machines. He talks about the way in which the machine isn't introduced to make labor easier but rather to intensify and extend it, to latch it onto ...


5

Walter Kaufmann had some strong opinions on Popper's scholarship in "The Open Society and Its Enemies" More about Hegel than Marx, but probably worth reading anyway given Hegel's influence on Marx


5

Marx didn't think that the state should have any role in the economy. The essence of his philosophy is that in the ultimate classless society, the state will have "withered away": "State interference in social relations becomes, in one domain after another, superfluous, and then dies out of itself; the government of persons is replaced by the ...


5

Marx was a theorist of Capitalism which he considered the dominant form of economic activity on this era; to be distinguished from earlier ones - such as the mercantile city states and feudalism; or much earlier systems of barter say; as Rosa Luxembourg explained he was focused on formulating the economic laws of motion of Capitalism; and this needs to be ...


5

Marxism has many aspects to it; the main difference appears to be as a political movement, and as a school of thought. As a political movement, it is as political and legal theorist Roberto Unger put it: no longer a live option; as a school of thought its influence is still apparent. The collapse of the Soviet Union ... signalled the defeat of Marxism ...


5

I would suggest that IME it functions to consolidate capitalism not just by division or distraction, but by disempowering the white / male / etc. working class; relative to the capitalist class of course. Hmmmm, porbably not. Marx and Engels saw women as the original oppressed group and marriage and monogamy as instruments of capitalism. See the SEP article ...


5

Machiavelli found the "enemy of my enemy is my friend" advice to be cheap and short-sighted, at least for a ruler. It is not that he was concerned with moral virtues, but rather he saw shifting alliances as ineffective in the long run, and fostering loyalties and respect as more effective. Better yet, converting enemies into friends (Ch.20 of the Prince). So ...


4

Henri Lefebvre wrote a book Dialectical Materialism to attempt to divorce DM from its vulgarization by Stalinists and official Communist party philosophers and develop it as a form of "logic." I consider this book to be a little too Hegelian and philosophically concerned for it to be in the tradition of Engels' Anti-Duhring and Dialectics of Nature. A more ...


4

I don't know why you've titled the difference as being about "mysticism". To put it simply, Marx is not a very good interpreter of Hegel (for the take of another Hegel scholar see Dudley Knowles, Routledge Guide to Hegel and the Philosophy of Right , p. 20). So Marx critiques what turns out to be a fundamental feature of Hegel's philosophy which demonstrates ...


4

Well there is Analytical Marxism Of the names mentioned, G.A. Cohen is probably the most prominent or at least he's the name I've seen the most in my personal experience. His book Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence is often suggested to people who might otherwise recoil with repugnance towards the Marxist concept of dialectical materialism. I think ...


4

I believe Marx proposed Dialectic materialism by "reversing" the Hegelian dialectic idealism so to make it stand with "the feet on the ground". As i know "material" for Hegel is an idea. But "idea" is not something just in man's head, but the whole spirit of the world, so some times an "idea" is pure materialistic. Correct me if i 'm wrong.


4

Hegel himself can be read as materialistic (in a very, very weak sense): In the sense that the general in which the particular being is thought, the concept ("Begriff"), is always "grounded" in the very being of this particular, as it is the generality of the being. BUT he descriminates between being ("Dasein") and reality ("Wirklichkeit"), where reality is ...


4

Perhaps the most original contribution to historical materialism after Marx is Đilas's New Class, that analyzes the communist system itself from the point of view of historical materialism. The new class is the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats in "communist" autocracies, which Đilas identifies as being state capitalist. This is clearly revisionist of ...


4

As I studied economics as well as philosophy and had advanced courses in physics in school, I feel prepared to answer this question. First, what does the second law of thermodynamics state? It has various formulations, but the essential core may be formulated like this: There is no way (=no machine) that can transfer energy from a system with lower ...


4

The English word value form translates the German Wertform. It appears for the first time in Marx, Karl: Das Kapital, Band 1, Abschnitt 1, Kapitel 1, Paragraph 3, entitled "Die Wertform oder der Tauschwert". Marx states that goods can be viewed from two different aspects: 1) Their natural form - they are made from iron, linen cloth, wheat, and 2) their ...


4

I doubt there is any crossover whatsoever. Nietzsche's breakdown was in 1889. Marx died in England in 1883, and was not at all the most prominent socialist of that time. Engels completed Capital in 1894 and "Marxism" only emerged in distinct contrast to other variants of socialism and anarchism around the turn of the century. What they shared in their ...


4

The Jewish Question is a criticism of Bruno Bauer, who argues that the emancipation of Jews is subordinate to the emancipation of mankind: Bruno Bauer replies to them: No one in Germany is politically emancipated. We ourselves are not free. How are we to free you? You Jews are egoists if you demand a special emancipation for yourselves as Jews. As ...


4

The quote is from the preface to the first edition of Capital, although similar things can be found elsewhere in Marx's writings. To take a stab at the relation: The last sentence seems to reiterate a bit of the point of the preceding paragraph, namely that there are natural laws that guide economic and social development. The first paragraph more or less ...


4

Capitalism for Marx I go along with David Miller's working definition of what capitalism meant for Marx : Capitalism - This is understood in Marx's nineteenth- century sense, as an economic system based on the free market in which a minority of individuals own the means of production and hire wage- laborers, the state being confined to the ...


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