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48

Marx, socialism and communism Neither Marx nor Engels provided a blueprint for the socialist state. There could in their view be no such thing as a communist state since under communism, with no class-rule or management needed, there would be no state because no classes. Even the Soviet Union described and understood itself as socialist, not communist : ...


48

Workers however have a choice in who they work for how much they earn so how can it be called exploitation? This isn't good philosophy on my part (I'm not making reference to a formal Marxist response), but your question implies two things: Workers do in fact have a choice in who they work for Having a choice of employer means you can't be exploited We ...


25

The headline Marxist answer is since all bosses - employers - exploit, the worker's only choice is which employer he will exploited by. There is no choice between exploitation and non-exploitation but only a choice of exploiter. Marx offers more than one account of exploitation (Ausbeutung) but his central and distinctive account can be put as follows : ...


18

A criticized exception to the rule that falls short of the rule makes for valid negation of criticism OK, that headline requires changing direction of the train of thought at least three times, so let me clarify: The statement "That is not a true Scotsman" is not necessarily a fallacy In order for "No True Scotsman fallacy!" to be a valid objection to an ...


17

"No True Scotsman" is one of those categories of fallacies that is rather subjective. If Person A says that X is not Y because it lacks Z, and Person B says that this is a No True Scotsman fallacy, then it comes down to whether Z is a valid requirement for Y. In the case of communism, claiming that the USSR didn't live up to Marx's ideal is a reasonable ...


15

For what it's worth: there's actually some empirical research around the question of which sorts of aid and intervention actually provide long-term solutions versus prolonging indigence/poverty/etc. In particular some experimenters have tried giving homeless people moderately-sized amounts of cash (about $5,000 USD). The results compare very favorably to ...


10

Popper objected to Marxism because Marxism is historicist: Marxism claims that it can predict the future course of history. When I discuss Marxism below, I'm discussing what Popper said about Marxism without necessarily claiming Popper was right. (I think he was far too generous to Marx in many respects. In particular, both Popper and Marx were very badly ...


9

If you want a modern interpretation, it's the reduction in labor share (in relation to capital share) in production/income that's the "exploitation" aspect. If you have less bargaining power (because your contribution matters less), then you're more easily exploited. Likewise: The stability of the labor share of income is a key foundation in ...


8

Workers however have a choice in who they work for how much they earn so how can it be called exploitation? Because the choice is meaningless. Ironically, a good example of a meaningless choice are elections in the former communist countries. On paper, you had a choice of parties that you could pick from. On paper, they even had different policies and ...


7

Popper believed that Marx's ideas led to dictatorship based on his observations of the events in the Soviet Union and the actions of the Stalin government. His real objection to Marx wasn't that it lead to dictatorship, but that Marx's ideas were unscientific. Popper was originally a fan of Marx who thought that Marxist economic theory was a perfect ...


7

ad 1) On the base of human rights there is no justification for the suffering of people. In addition, history has shown that the promise of a better future can be a dangerous delusion and invites to misuse. ad 2) We cannot be certain: History has shown that the ideal Marxist state is a theoretical fiction.


6

Has anyone "merged" existentialist thought with the idea of absence of free will? Yes, Sartre. Sartre was a Marxist and he took up positions close to those of the Communist Party, though Marxist determinism was not easy to reconcile with the absolute libertarianism that was the keynote of existentialism. In an effort to resolve this tension he wrote a ...


6

Like every -ism, also Historicism can be used as an over-simplifying label. Having said that, the starting point must be Hegel's Philosophy of History; Hegel's philosophy is complex and his Philosophy of History is a relevant part of his system. A key point is the: attempt to discover meaning or direction in history. Hegel regards history as an ...


6

(This is a short unsourced answer for the time being, when I have the time later, I will update it with sources and details) From a Marxist point of view, UBI doesn't solve the problem of exploitation. Nor does free housing, universal health care, or food stamps for all, etc....all of these are corrections to capitalism, which aim at keeping capitalism in ...


6

I think there is a correlation basis, although I am hesitant to call it philosophical. Let me reframe the issue: there is no doubt that social/cultural and fiscal liberalism are logically independent, so the question is why they are correlated in populations statistically. The reason can be psychological, or historical, or philosophical, or all three ...


5

Marxism has many aspects to it; the main difference appears to be as a political movement, and as a school of thought. As a political movement, it is as political and legal theorist Roberto Unger put it: no longer a live option; as a school of thought its influence is still apparent. The collapse of the Soviet Union ... signalled the defeat of Marxism ...


5

I would suggest that IME it functions to consolidate capitalism not just by division or distraction, but by disempowering the white / male / etc. working class; relative to the capitalist class of course. Hmmmm, porbably not. Marx and Engels saw women as the original oppressed group and marriage and monogamy as instruments of capitalism. See the SEP article ...


5

There's two features in Marxism (here I'm working from its Hegelian background primarily as I think these problems transfer) that conspire to enable the objection that it is anti-individual: First, following Hegel, the Marxist picture is such that the whole is the real. In the Hegelian picture, this whole is "spiritual" but in the marxist version it's ...


5

Off the top of my head there are probably four* lively strands of Marxist thought, concerning, respectively, economic matters, identity politics, politics generally, and ideology. (All the thinkers I cite here are of course broad and on a deep level it doesn't make much sense to categorize them as I have. This is just a jumping-off point.) We shouldn't ...


5

Machiavelli found the "enemy of my enemy is my friend" advice to be cheap and short-sighted, at least for a ruler. It is not that he was concerned with moral virtues, but rather he saw shifting alliances as ineffective in the long run, and fostering loyalties and respect as more effective. Better yet, converting enemies into friends (Ch.20 of the Prince). So ...


5

Welcome, October ! Some contrasts between Marx and George are drawn out in an article by John Haynes Holmes. Holmes' plain and sometimes undiscerning lack of sympathy for Marx and extolling of George, and his over-use of exclamation marks, do not prevent some helpful points from being made: It is unlikely, had Karl Marx and Henry George ever met, or ...


4

Well there is Analytical Marxism Of the names mentioned, G.A. Cohen is probably the most prominent or at least he's the name I've seen the most in my personal experience. His book Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence is often suggested to people who might otherwise recoil with repugnance towards the Marxist concept of dialectical materialism. I think ...


4

Definitely the latter. While Marx himself and subsequent Marxists often flamboyantly revile the "bourgeois class" in what seem to be attributions of conscious intent, this absolutely must be taken as figurative or, at the very least, inconsequential. While Marx's writing style was at times wonderful, invigorating, and wholly Dickensian, my own feeling is ...


4

The Jewish Question is a criticism of Bruno Bauer, who argues that the emancipation of Jews is subordinate to the emancipation of mankind: Bruno Bauer replies to them: No one in Germany is politically emancipated. We ourselves are not free. How are we to free you? You Jews are egoists if you demand a special emancipation for yourselves as Jews. As ...


4

Your understanding is definitively good enough as a working hypothesis. The relation between alienation and unification is one of the major topics of the book, i.e. something not defined but explored. The Socienty of the Spectacle is much easier to read as a whole than as a system, i.e. repeatedly rather than incrementally. Still, let me provide some ...


4

One reason why Žižek is considered Marxist is that his philosophical genealogy, coming through the Frankfurt School and Critical Theory, can be traced back to Marx and left Hegelianism, even though his thought has since departed from traditional Marxism. Another example of this is Jürgen Habermas, who came out of the Frankfurt school and can trace his ...


4

The remark occurs in the course of an exchange between Marx and Mikhail Bakunin (1814-76), a revolutionary anarchist. The immediate context is Bakunin's contemptuous reference to 'the so-called people's will' in (bourgeois) representative democracy. The alienated and exploited electorate in the grip of 'false consciousness' (systematic misunderstanding of ...


3

I will add here an anarcho-communist perspective in broad lines. Marx supported his critique of bourgeois democracy (The critique of the Hegelian philosophy of Right) in Hegel's text "Philosophy of Right" a purely bourgeois analysis of economic-political relations among economical classes in which bourgeois democracy is analyzed as: A bourgeoisie regime, a ...


3

I have studied Marx in a lot of subjects in the school, such as History, Sociology, Economy and Political Sciences. The bad side of this is that each professor told me different things about Marx. There are many Marxisms - philosophical, cultural, political & economical. Its important to see that Marxs own writings are part of what is now called ...


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