Many commentators have responded citing computational theory of mind as the basis for studying AI, but the philosophy that more accurately encompasses your question is the broader topic of the theory of mind, of which the computational model is just one approach. The difference between the two also highlights a difference in the approaches to creating ...
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computational theory of mind
A more philosophical angle and less technical- / theory- based answer is: computational theory of mind.
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Abstraction Modelling of the Human Brain Parallel to Abstraction Modelling of ...
tl;dr- We'll be able to construct better models for human minds by reducing general AI to human-like simplifications. However, since human intelligences are hive-minds which seek many different objectives, it seems almost certain that we won't find a single objective shared throughout a human mind.
Optimization is the field of minimizing/maximizing a ...