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When we try to philosophically define a word like "knowledge," we're trying to capture the sense in which we already use it. But the sense in which we already use it may be vague and inconsistent, and may vary from person to person. So what we're really trying to do is find a definition that is clear and specific, while being close to how we ...


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"What is knowledge?" is not an empirical question. It's a conceptual question (i.e. about the meaning of the concept of knowledge). Empirical questions always presuppose answers to conceptual questions (e.g. scientific inquiry on the nature of consciousness requires an operationalized definition of "consciousness," which might be taken ...


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Douglas remarks on the cosmology of a primitive culture. You turn this into the idea of a primitive cosmology. That concept slip is not justified. "Primitive" is a loaded word at the best of times. Primitive with respect to what? Our own morals, social and cultural complexity, scientific understanding, technology, what exactly? All too often it is ...


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A "primitive" cosmology would be one which is not based on observational data, where the conclusions or truths derived from it are not subject to experimental verification, and where its fundamentals are not expressed mathematically.


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The West, that is to say, Western Civilization, is both historical and geographical in meaning. Typically, most History classes-(even in the age of Political Correctness), tend to begin the History of the West with the Ancient Greeks-(though there are some History classes and Historians who have disagreed with this and say that the West's real origins were ...


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The Academy, was literally invented by Plato..! I like Vervaeke's point that Plato took the subversive openess to questioning that got Socrates killed, and mixed it with the Pythagorean math-cult, to create academia - creating a school that could reach the high and low-born, to be financially sustainable, but also a place for anyone that could argue really ...


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Western philosophy (as commonly understood) is a set of philosophical systems originating in the Middle East and Europe that are heavily influenced by biblical hermeneutics (talmudic argumentation) and Aristotelean logic. It seeks to discover and establish principles that can be expressed and manipulated in language. As such it always begins at a generalized ...


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