12

Colloquial meanings of the two words are pretty close, accidental is "occurring unexpectedly or by chance", contingent is "subject to chance; occurring or existing only if (certain circumstances) are the case; dependent on". If there is a shade of difference, it is that contingent may well be expected as a possibility, albeit along other options, whereas ...


8

No, you did not contradict LNC. In your program (( A == A ) and (A != A)) is true, but you also changed the function of '==' and '!=' so that '!=' is not longer a negation of '==': Your '==' function always returns True: def __eq__(self, other): self.last = True return self.last But your '!=' function no longer behaves as the negation of '==': ...


7

I answer with the authority of being a native German speaker and having graduated in philosophy ;) Back-world is a bad translation here. Presumably, the translator has mistaken the term "Hinterweltler" as being a misspelling and semantically identical to the word "Hinterwäldler", which means backwoodsmen or hillbillies. The German original "Hinterwelt" ...


6

He did dismiss it, at least for the purposes of ethics. Oddly enough, it is not aimed at ancient or Oriental metempsychosis, but comes in passing in a polemic against... Descartes and his substance dualism. Here is from Leibniz's Letter on Cartesianism (to an unknown correspondent): "I say, then, that the immortality of the soul, such as Descartes ...


6

There's some recent formal work by Graham Priest on this topic, which can be found in his monograph One. Oxford 2016, p.99ff. Priest works in a non-standard mereology, where parthood is a non-well-founded preorder. His basic idea is to to formalize nothingness as the fusion of the empty set, this fusion being denoted by the constant n. So, within this ...


5

The short answer is: no, there's no generally accepted solution of this 'problem' (if it is one). Some simply reject Bradley's argument(s) since they reject some of its (their) assumptions, for instance, that particulars are bundels of qualities or that qualities are tropes (e.g. Russell). Those that accept Bradley's assumptions have responded in various ...


4

Your question is a deep one about the very nature of logic. If logical truths are true, what exactly are they true of? And how do we know? There are many possible answers to these questions, and no general agreement among philosophers. Since the literature is pretty huge, I can only briefly summarise the main positions. Simple logical realism would have it ...


4

Edward Said says: At [the core of what can be called the epistemology of imperialism] is the stubborn thesis that everyone is principally and irreducibly a member of some race or category, and that race or category cannot ever be assimilated to or accepted by others---except as itself. Thus came into being such invented essences as the Oriental or ...


4

Assuming the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas... Yes, your reasoning is correct. If God is pure actuality, then he has no unrealized potential, or non-actual but possible attributes. The possibility of not existing would be such an unrealized potential that God cannot possess. So, God conceived of as pure actuality must exist necessarily and a fortiori can ...


4

IMO one should not play off one against the other, i.e. geometry against arithmetic or vice versa. At the time of Poincaré both disciplines were separated. At the base of Grothendieck‘s revolutionary view onto Algebraic Geometry lies the concept of the spectrum: Introducing the spectrum Spec R of a commutative ring R means to consider the algebraic object ...


4

Here are some quotes from Max Tegmark's "The Multiverse Hierarchy" hopefully answering the OP's question: What exactly does he mean by self-aware substructure? Tegmark assumes that "all aspects" of reality are isomorphic to a mathematical structure. Let us now digest the idea that physical world (specifically, the Level III multiverse) is a mathematical ...


4

I think this question is conflating a few different levels of analysis. 'Being' in the sense of sein or dasein, which is usually taken to mean the peculiar nature of life (or human life in the latter case): i.e., very roughly equivalent to conscious experience. 'Being' in the ontological sense of material existence: i.e., it has physical form, therefore it ...


4

SHORT ANSWER No, by the definition of experience, rocks do not experience their existsence. LONG ANSWER To be clear, sometimes people see 'experience' as a synonym for 'history', which is likely a result of 'experience' being used metaphorically for 'history'. For example, "what did that boat experience at sea? She looks sad!" This is a form of ...


4

I think a theory must take the form of a formal axiomatic system. (1) it has to be axiomatic, since not all propositions can be proved ( one has to start somewhere) (2) it has to be formal in order the deductions inside the theory to be purely logical. If one accepts whet precedes, any metaphysical theory, qua theory, has to possess these two features. ...


4

Interpreted narrowly, your question seems related to the problem of (data) fishing, where someone investigates hypothesis after hypothesis on the data until getting statistical significance on one (without correcting for the number of hypotheses considered), so that in all likelihood it was just a fluke. This is a well understood problem. Interpreted more ...


4

Poincaré is advocating for what is now called structural realism. Structural realism says that the mathematical properties of mind-independent objects are real, and they are all that is truly knowable about those objects. Physics deals with (a subset of) mathematical structures. A mathematical structure is a set of objects (or multiple sets of different ...


3

Schopenhauer offers a double epistemological aspect of the world, which is to say, existence, as being at once Will and Idea. His work is not explicitly a study of ontology, i.e. essence/being, beyond the essences of Ideas, which for Schopenhauer are simply the intelligible, a priori objectifications of Will, for the subject. Although this system appears ...


3

To answer the question of the existence of 'ideas' outside of and beyond the confines of a human mind it is first vital to escape the bounds of what HF Hallett termed 'truncated empiricism'; that theory which places limits on which subject matters are eligible for scientific investigation. This 'boxing-off' of segments of human experience delimits the ...


3

The OP observes the following: I never know what people mean by absolute truth, it sounds like they're referring to a truth above all truths, but there are many truths. Dominic J. O'Meara describes (pages 44-5) the neo-Platonism of Plotinus in such a way that it may be an example of what the OP describes as associating "the absolute truth to the idea ...


3

We should be careful not to confuse: the enterprise to acquire knowledge itself its truths/facts, theories or models of reality its subject matter If we’re talking about point 1, trivially, science, mathematics and philosophy would not exist anymore if there was no intelligent life. Point 3 is also relatively easy to explain: Virtually nobody believes ...


3

Yes and No. No part Every concept can be defined. Lets take for example concept "square-circle". Sounds stupid at first ? Yes, first impression is like it is so. But if we take things like that square-circle is html object which has CSS property of border-radius equal to 25% - this starts making sense. We get an object which looks like: Yes part If by ...


3

Maybe you would understand @Logikal comments if you think about it like this: A physical machine (computer) takes a set of input conditions, then evaluates/operate according to a predetermined logic to produce a new set, then repeat... Time is intrinsic to the operation. (Your program works by exploiting the time aspect.) However formal logic has no time ...


3

I feel there is much misunderstanding here. In order for the LNC to be properly applied to a contradictory-pair of statements one member of the pair must be true and the other must be false. This is a rule. If we don't know that one is true and the other false then we cannot apply the LNC. This is Aristotle's rule for contradictory pairs. It is ...


3

The following extract from Michael Pakaluk might help though it will probably need more than one reading (just speaking from experience) : The Cyclical Argument (CA) is not unfairly presented as follows: Anything that comes to take on an attribute which has an opposite, previously had that opposite attribute. Being dead and being alive are ...


3

Which philosophers have proven existing is being part of the change in time? Coincidentally, I became interested in the work of Lee Smolin just last evening. A renowned theoretical physicist, he has made major contributions to the philosophy of physics. His areas of research includes cosmology. According to Wikipedia, in an article he wrote for Physics ...


3

The answers to the three questions What is the probability that it is possible to build at least two simulations? What is the probability that there's anyone who can do it? What is the probability that this someone has done it? could be anything one wants between 0 and 1, from impossible to necessary. If you find it hard to believe that ...


3

Leibniz's monads follow a principle of non-interaction. Monads cannot communicate with each other in the same way that Deleuze's rhizomes have flows of desire between one another. Monads are immortal and can only represent internal representations of relations, rhizomes themselves are temporary and can form alliances with one another forming temporary ...


3

You will find that there is no "law" of logic that is held universally. And to speak "of logic" confuses the issue because there isn't a single logic but rather numerous logics. Technically all you need to have a logic is a language (syntax or rules for what counts as a well formed formula), definitions of interpretation (or semantics), operators and their ...


3

Are there philosophers who argue that there is a close connection (maybe even an identification) between being conscious and existing? It seems to me that Descartes' cogito ergo sum is right up your alley. first person experience entails existence, and as I personally read into it: experience is existence. However in contemporary non-continental philosophy ...


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