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12 votes

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence?

People often don't realise how vague a term Artificial Intelligence is. It can be used to indicate anything from a synthetic mind with human-equivalent capacities (more properly called Artificial ...
CriglCragl's user avatar
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12 votes

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence?

Ramon Llull is a good contender. From the Wikipedia article on the History of artificial intelligence: Spanish philosopher Ramon Llull (1232–1315) developed several logical machines devoted to the ...
Mutoh's user avatar
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5 votes

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence?

If we had a characteristica universalis, we should be able to reason in metaphysics and morals in much the same way as in geometry and analysis. If controversies were to arise, there would be no more ...
Rushi's user avatar
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4 votes
Accepted

I know Survival of the fittest is realistic. But is it morally ethical?

There are a few points to discuss here... First, 'survival of the fittest' (in Darwin's model) is concerned with the fitness of a group or species, not so much the fitness of individuals. Any specific ...
Ted Wrigley's user avatar
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4 votes

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence?

You ask: Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence? Alan Turing is the first thinker to begin to address an artificial general intelligence. But we need to ...
J D's user avatar
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3 votes

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence?

Who was the first philosopher (e.g., Greek or pre-Socratic) You are not taking that the first philosophers were Greek ... tut, tut, tut. Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now know as ...
Mozibur Ullah's user avatar
3 votes
Accepted

How can nature without self-awareness and intelligence create living beings with self-awareness and intelligence?

Living organisms are examples of dissipative systems, like a wind-Zephyr, or the Red Spot storm on Jupiter. This general category, involves emergent structures that are sustained by their accelerating ...
CriglCragl's user avatar
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3 votes
Accepted

Does natural science assume indirect realism?

Indirect realism is the view that our contact with reality is mediated ("filtered") through our sense organs and/or cognitive faculties. We do not experience reality "as it is, out there". This isn't ...
Adam Sharpe's user avatar
  • 3,864
3 votes

What are "generation and corruption" in Aristotle's philosophy?

Here is how St. Thomas Aquinas, in his De principiis naturæ §§6-7, explains generation and corruption: Because generation is a motion to form, there is a twofold generation corresponding to this ...
Geremia's user avatar
  • 8,260
2 votes

What is implications of well ordering theorem regarding order in nature?

Axiom of choice has nothing to do with free will and the well-ordering theorem has almost nothing to do with order in nature. They just have similar names. The axiom of choice says that the Cartesian ...
causative's user avatar
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2 votes
Accepted

How does science treat supernatural claims?

Science is about measurement; supernatural claims are those which depend (in one way or another) upon something which is intrinsically unmeasurable. Thus the claim: "Something had a round trip ...
Ted Wrigley's user avatar
  • 21.2k
2 votes

Where is it that I go when I dream? Part 2

Going with the example of hypnagogic/ hypnic jerks, these were the brain's way of giving us one last chance to adjust our position, reducing the risk of falling out of the tree branches we were ...
P R Das's user avatar
  • 21
1 vote

Final Steps and Zeno's Paradox

I think the simple answer is that the SEP article is wrong. The argument seems to be: The infinite sequence 100m, 150m, 175m, ... has no final term The infinite sequence 100m, 150m, 175m, ... ...
Michael's user avatar
  • 303
1 vote

Final Steps and Zeno's Paradox

Your first question is:- if the journey is from point A to point B, and the completion of the journey entails reaching point B by traveling point by point, how can one complete "every step" ...
Ludwig V's user avatar
  • 2,918
1 vote

The concept of time - arrow, pattern or both?

Time is neither an arrow nor a pattern. According to our current best mainstream theories of physics, time is a dimension in a four-dimensional spacetime. I cannot begin to imagine how you might ...
Marco Ocram's user avatar
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1 vote

"All there is are cells" as a philosophical school of thought

Atoms have substructure though, like quarks. Atoms as we consider them were only confirmed in the early 1900, with Ernst Mach still insisting matter was fundamentally continuous in 1903 (a lesser ...
CriglCragl's user avatar
  • 22.5k
1 vote

Is there space even though there is only color, not objects? (re-question)

In the physical world, the absence of light is just the absence of it, not a property called blackness or darkness. Why is this different from experience? Putting attention on sight and “seeing” black,...
Al Brown's user avatar
  • 486
1 vote
Accepted

Is there space even though there is only color, not objects? (re-question)

I assume you are asking this question from the point of view of a strict empiricist, and that by "concept of space" you really mean to refer to a concept and not the real space of physical ...
David Gudeman's user avatar
1 vote

How does science treat supernatural claims?

Supernatural is defined as that which is "beyond natural". Oxford defines it as "Manifestation or event attributed to some force beyond scientific understanding or the laws of nature&...
SMJoe's user avatar
  • 348
1 vote

How does science treat supernatural claims?

Supernatural claims have evidence against them from the outset of the claim these days. We have seen the history of many similar claims never having been proven. Ever since Thales and the birth of ...
Paul Burchett's user avatar
1 vote

How does science treat supernatural claims?

‘Good’ science treats all claims equally: if the claim can be proven to be correct then our understanding of science is enlarged or refined to accommodate it. The vast majority of observations fit in ...
Frog's user avatar
  • 655
1 vote
Accepted

Was Luhmann influenced by Schelling?

It is very hard to prove a negative, but I am pretty confident that there is no direct influence after checking a lot of English and German sources. They do have some similarities, probably because ...
Philip Klöcking's user avatar
  • 14.3k
1 vote

What is the historical relationship between physics and philosophy?

The OP asks whether the disciplines we call philosophy and physics (or science) arose from some more primitive philosophy that split in two. Such a position would make sense if the approach to the ...
Frank Hubeny's user avatar
  • 19.5k
1 vote

What are "generation and corruption" in Aristotle's philosophy?

As I understand it, in Aristotle's context: "generation" means "creation" (also in the sense of "composition"/"association") "corruption" means "destruction" (also "decomposition"/"dissociation") ...
Alex Sotka's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Is your phone a natural product?

The answer depends on your definitions. You provide one set of definitions, but they aren't the only ones. Alan Watts often pointed out that there are two ways to treat yourself or other humans. ...
Cort Ammon's user avatar
  • 18.2k
1 vote

Is your phone a natural product?

Your phone is not a natural object in the way a tree or a storm or the planet Mars is. We can claim that the natural is a social construction in the sense that all we have access to is a world ...
Geoffrey Thomas's user avatar
  • 35.8k
1 vote

Is your phone a natural product?

The laws of thought A thing exists It is either true or not There is no middle place between true or false Natural - not influenced by man, man-made - created or changed by mans influence. The word ...
PeterJens's user avatar
  • 548
1 vote

Is your phone a natural product?

I think that the presence in our language of the word "natural" implies that there is something other than what is natural. In the same way, the words "artificial", "impossible", "unnatural", "fake", ...
elliot svensson's user avatar
1 vote
Accepted

Would the existence of an eternal, uncaused object conflict with the naturalistic framework?

As Mauro quotes, naturalism is the heuristics that everything in this world is the result of natural "causes" - of course, naturalism accepts that events on the quantum level may have no cause at all. ...
Jo Wehler's user avatar
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