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@Geoffrey Thomas: Tbh, I suspect your argument is circular, not Spinoza's. I suggest you to read the original text including commentaries by him. It is one of the things he discusses in depth at different points in his deduction. It is not for you to discern between whether substances exist, or not. You might want to dispute this, but the existence of (sic) ...


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How do philosophers define matter? No previous answers address the point of view of philosophy, so, I feel compelled to answer. Scientifically, the term matter has multiple definitions, some of which are mentioned on previous answers. But that's not the philosophical perspective. Philosophically, let's say that there are two main loosely divided realms of ...


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I would argue matter in the modern sense, is the result of the journey of unification physics has been on. And that is better thought of as finding a common language, rather than as getting at an ontological unity or sameness: Is the idea that "Everything is energy" even coherent? Causality is deeply suspect, and rapidly frays when you start to ...


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Yes, you're essentially right that particles are just bundles of properties except that it's not   "are",   it's more precisely   "are described by",   which I think is a big philosophical "distinction with a difference" that's at the root of your question. You can never say what anything "is", per se, except by ...


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Modern physicalists generally do not argue any more that physicalism is actually monisitc. Here are three references published in the last two decades, that all agree that there are non-physical things in our universe: https://www.amazon.com/Physicalism-Problems-Philosophy-Daniel-Stoljar/dp/0415452627/ref=sr_1_1?crid=32B84H7IR1HAM&keywords=physicalism+...


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Penrose is using the three world model of Frege and Popper. Here is a link to Popper's Tanner lecture which explains three worlds. https://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_resources/documents/a-to-z/p/popper80.pdf In summary, there are three kinds of things in our universe -- things which have location and time properties, and those things are basically matter, ...


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The area of philosophy here is the primary/secondary properties distinction. Have a look at: Is the idea that "Everything is energy" even coherent? I'd say 'most fundamental' is equivalent to 'of the aspects which are most universalisable'. So, thermodynamic system is a big category, so that gets quite far into being universal. Our most universal &...


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This may lead to a regress This suggest you think that thos rules it out as a posdibility. However, some philosophies have taken to mean that there are no basic properties. This is what sunyata in Buddhist philosophy argues. If this is what you are interested in you might want to have a look at this. But how do we decide which properties of a thing is ...


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Dictionary says, Object: a material thing that can be seen and touched. Entity: a thing with distinct and independent existence. Thing: 1. an object that one need not, cannot, or does not wish to give a specific name to. 2. an inanimate material object as distinct from a living sentient being. 3. an action, event, thought, or utterance. So, from these ...


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Are there any philosophical arguments to disprove or weaken solipsism? Solipsism is a misleading word. It suggests that there is a theory which could conceivably be true of all minds, but of course there isn't. A solipsist mind believes there is no other mind, and therefore no other mind to convince that there is no other minds. He or she has no motivation ...


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If the solopist dies and you are still in existence then by Jove you have refuted solopism. Now to find a solopist that is not dead yet, be careful around this person. When he goes so do we.


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There are two arguments which I think work to slightly reduce the strength of solipsism. The first I’ll term “madness argument”and the second which I’ll term the “new information argument”. Madness argument: The solipsist will argue that because I only experience my own conscious mind, my conscious mind is the only thing which exists. To make this argument, ...


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