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Aristotle Aquinas offers a clear account of the epistemic priority of Aristotelian substance in his Commentary on the Metaphysics bk. 7 l. 1: (1) It is evident too that substance is first in the order of knowing, for that is first in the order of knowing which is better known and explains a thing better. Now each thing is better known when its ...


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For Aristotle (4th century BC Greek philosopher) and St. Thomas Aquinas (13th century AD medieval philosopher/theologian), ‘substance’ is the primary category of being and is simply defined as an independent and contingently existing thing. As far as his treatment of existence is concerned, Aristotle does not develop an explicit viewpoint on this matter. ...


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We have to take into account the substance-attribute-mode basic ontology and the way they interact with intellect. Substance (Def.III) is "that which is in itself, and is conceived through itself: in other words, that of which a conception can be formed independently of any other conception." The intellect can conceive the substance (e.g. mind) without ...


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In first order logic, we don't assume existence of any model, we are quantifying over all possibly existing models. If we show something follows from our axioms, it means that all models that satisfy our axioms also satisfy the conclusion. If, for some reason, there is no such model (because the axioms were inconsistent), then our proof is still valid, just ...


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