6

Well, in some ways Callicles comes close. One easily recognizes some of the key themes of Nietzsche's master morality there: the strong dominate the weak by nature, laws protecting the weak are unfair to the strong, morality is not established by gods but by men with their own petty interests, etc. According to Urstad's Nietzsche and Callicles on Happiness, ...


5

St. Thomas Aquinas, who was a follower of Aristotle in many things, has 32 questions on happiness (felicitas) in his Treatise on Man's Last End (Summa Theologica I-II qq. 1-5) or purpose, which he says is twofold: to attain happiness, which is "the acquisition of the last end" or purpose (ibid. q. 1 a. 8) and happiness itself, which is the last end. cf. ...


4

Arthur Schopenhauer is probably the most notable example of a Western philosopher who praised ideas from the Buddhist tradition. He explicitly compared his own theory of the human will to the "Four Noble Truths" of Buddhism. While American Transcendentalism was more of a cultural than a philosophical movement, that might be another case where prominent ...


4

Your question refers to the theological problem of theodicy: How to explain that God is omnipotent, omniscient, and omnigracious, but there are so many evils and pains in the world? 1) Concerning evil a well known proposal is due to Leibniz: Our world is the best possible word. From the set of all possible worlds God chooses for creation the one world with ...


4

To the best of my knowledge, this specific example is probably something that the author thought up, but it is entirely consistent with the limited source material. In particular I can point to one such specific example from Epicurus's "Letter to Menoeceus" in which the following is relevant. By pleasure we mean the absence of pain in the body and ...


3

It seems to be a better life mentality to relish in the cold reality of accepting the inevitable pains of life. Is this not a concept? Something like this? Remember that following desire promises the attainment of that of which you are desirous; and aversion promises the avoiding that to which you are averse. However, he who fails to obtain the object of ...


3

Hi Kaito Kid and welcome to PSE. You pose a thought-provoking question but my own view of utilitarianism and of what it allows, which I'll explain as best I can, is rather different from yours. I am not btw a utilitarian. Just a conceptual point to begin with. Utilitarianism in its standard formulation is a requirement of maximisation - of the greatest (...


2

One interesting thing I came across which is relevant is the way relatively contemporary thinkers saw Epicureans. In Cicero's writings, he refers to Epicureanism as a philosophy that tries to maximize the body's pleasure (he does this explicitly in book 1 of "The Ideal Orator"). Having said that, my understanding of Epicureanism is that the only way to ...


2

Moral judgements are sensitive to considerations of suffering - of pain, in the context of your question. Morally we have to take pain into account. The ethical problem I foresee is one of incommensurability. By what metric can we assess the comparative moral importance of a mild pain that is chronic and a severe pain that is brief ? Some comparative ...


2

Are there any remarkable authors and books who believed that truth and being realistic about life could be a better approach in the long run to achieve happiness? Yes, this is the fundamental philosophy of Jesus. Naturally, in Jesus' view eternity is the long run, God exists, and God rewards those "diligently seek him". Here are some words ...


2

A number of ancient Greek philosophies explored very different variations on this basic concept. The Stoics, for example, were very focused around accepting the world as it is, not as you wish it to be. Conversely, Plato taught that the most important thing is to see past the illusions of the world as we perceive it to the Greater Truth beyond. ...


2

First off, there's a really big and unfortunately unresolvable problem about trying to resolve whether "utilitarianism" thinks X or Y. That problem is what do we mean by this term? In contemporary philosophy, "utilitarianism" is used often synonymously with "consequentialism" where ethics is seen as the task of maximizing or ...


2

You have asked two questions. To the first - yes, happiness is relative. An example of this, is a poor and humble person being very happy to receive a gift that a more affluent person would consider "trash." As to the second - whether you may want more happiness or not, that depends on your current state of satisfaction and whether you consider the "cost" ...


1

Skinner didn't deny that qualia as such exist (though I don't know if he ever explicitly used the concept). Skinner merely tried to downplay the importance of subjective experience. He wanted to treat the mind as a black box: e.g., if we look at the stimulus going into the black box of the mind, and connect that stimulus with the response that comes out of ...


1

From a Darwinistic point of view, the purpose of our existance is reproduction and survival of our offspring. Our tendency to avoid pain and seek pleasure, and what we see as pain and pleasure, are a measure for what apports to the chances of offspring to exist and survive. The search for pleasure, in general, used to bring us to the right places, with ...


1

In paragraph 225 of Beyond Good and Evil Nietzsche expresses his scorn for ways of thinking that measure "the value of things according to pleasure and pain". He wants suffering to be "heightened and made even worse than it has ever been". Nietzsche writes: The discipline of suffering, of great suffering - don't you know that this discipline has been the ...


1

When one looks at the science of pain, especially at what has happened since the publications of Melzack and Wall's (1965) and Melzack and Casey's (1968), which revolutionized the scientific research on pain, we see that the science of pain has increasingly conceived of pain as less like perception of an objective reality and more like emotions by first ...


1

I recommend dipping into a little Heidegger if you want to read a theory about the possible explanations of your anxieties. William Blattner's introductory text to Being & Time is a good companion to the Macquarrie & Robinson translation of the text. As a taste, here's something along the lines of what the early Heidegger may have said: What you're ...


1

Mauro has given an excellent lead. Ancient wisdom is very much to the point. Try Epicurus, Lucretius, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius. There's also Matthew Arnold's 'An Essay on Marcus Aurelius' in Essays in Criticism. For your purposes the trouble with philosophy is that while it can, as in the texts above, give good advice, there is a problem of how to ...


1

We all know about the use of fishing hook. And it is used only by humans. I am saying about this just for reminding you of cheating by showing or giving a bait. It is some people's habit to cheat others for gaining something. Certainly, some animals also cheat; but only for their food. So it is very important to know the danger behind every action and act ...


1

Immediate pleasure isn't strictly irrational. Rationality can usually only be understood relative to some objective function. However I'll provide two points that may assist in understanding why people often consider it to be irrational. (1) Often one can gain greater pleasure in the future (or avoid future pain), by sacrificing immediate pleasure. For ...


1

I'm currently in an Aristotle course and I clarified parts of his argument from Nicomachean Ethics Book I for some casual short response. I think this is from chapter six or seven: All actions, in essence, have some purpose in mind, but for some, the purpose of the action is not in and of itself the ultimate purpose. The end of the former means becomes the ...


1

"seeking some kind of personal notion of satisfaction" "see pain as satisfaction" "the swarm interactions of all people [causes] progress" So, the fact you can pin 'satisfaction' or 'happiness' or 'utility' or whatever else, on to literally anything people choose to want, even pain, is why you can think it's what everyone wants. But it's just retroactive ...


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible