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There has been an emerging literature within the field of logic and computer science engaged with solving the problems encountered in the reasoning area of artificial intelligence which has consequently led to the construction and presentation of new 'computational models of argumentation' which contains material pertaining to the role of redundancy in ...


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I believe that as a general rule, repetition actually aids rhetoric. This is recognized in quotations about repeating lies. Repetition is required for learning generally, so it makes sense that repetition and redundancy makes it easier for people to repeat that which has been repeated. Persuasion and repetition go hand in hand.


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I can't readily agree that to show mercy is to act unjustly towards oneself. ... we may characterize mercy as the putative ethical value that justifies leniency in the infliction of punishment that is due in accordance with justice. Only someone who has cultivated a rational sensitivity to this value in thought, feeling and action has the virtue of ...


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The categories or predicables are part of the syllogistic "logic." Which was not yet strictly a closed logic in Aristotle, but only became so with the Stoics. With Aristotle the research was still more open, and the distinction between formal rules of inference, and general reasoning about the world, was not yet arrived at in the authoritative form which it ...


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This seems like a useful opportunity to suggest a technical but valuable distinction between different applications of logic. While it's a bit of a broad brush, logic might be held as the study of the relationships between statements. Classes and sets of statements are related to each other in many different ways; for example, we might understand how the ...


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Spinoza’s Ethics might be very close to what you are looking for — it employs a quasi-proof-oriented “geometric” technique elaborating what some would call the god of the philosophers; a “pantheistic”, arguably even atheistic conception of immanent divinity, worked out in syllogistic form, ostensibly deriving the downstream results from a handful of axioms.


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Validity and truth Do you regard these as separate notions ? In a deductively valid argument, the conclusion cannot be false if the premises are true. However, a valid argument can have a false conclusion : (a) All cats are white; (b) X is a cat; therefore (c) X is white. This is a deductively valid argument. If (a) and (b) are true, then (c) must be true. ...


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Because, to my absolute surprise, no one has asked this question before, I would like to elaborate a bit and summarize the most well-known versions* of idealism, as well as popular protagonists of different views, for reference to other questions that may come. *David Chalmers, in one of his famous articles "Idealism and the mind-body problem", divides the ...


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'Idealism' is a porous term and I don't think any hard and fast correct answer is possible to your question. Highly provisionally I offer the following response. Objective idealism Take 'idealism' to be the view that ultimate reality is non-physical. It is generally assumed, though I have reservations, that this implies that it is mental. Subjective ...


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I believe you've got the distinction between predicating and illocutionary act a little bit off. Some historical background. In Aristotle's On Interpretation, he addresses the question of how complex meanings are built up out of simple, uncombined meanings. For example, 'human' is a simple meaning without combination, whereas 'humans have legs' is a ...


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SHORT ANSWER All four sentences are about Sam and his relationship to smoking. No one of the four sentences intends to achieve the same goal. LONGER ANSWER Deixis and predication are how meaning is conveyed through semantics and syntax by grammatical structure. They are locutions. Illocution is concerned about at what end each intends to arrive. ...


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Searle is trying to piece out different aspects of a speech act, so that we can get at those aspects analytically instead of treating the speech act as an undifferentiated whole. So, when we make a speech act, there are several different kinds of things that we must do, e.g.: We must engage certain muscular movements of the lips, tongue, larynx, chest, etc ...


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About first I dont know Here are some Roland Barthes quotes in the direction you seek though not literally I am interested in language because it wounds or seduces me Language is a skin: I rub my language against the other. It is as if I had words instead of fingers, or fingers at the tip of my words. My language trembles with desire Language is ...


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In terms of traditional predicate logic, sentences 3 and 4 clearly involve me, the speaker, as the person being described and my preference as the only fact predicated. I wish for Sam to smoke habitually in both cases, and Sam may or may not ever do so. In the former case, I think I have influence over Sam, and in the latter, I do not. The same is true of ...


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Wittgenstein already sees the positivistic notion of 'words as object descriptions' as false. But he would probably not make the leap automatically from subjectivity to emotion. (There is a lot of space in between.) Words are moves in a game, and the collaborators determine the rules by participating. Those rules go way beyond description, and even when ...


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The critique by Nick Shackleton-Jones is on Dennetts dogmatic rationalism. At one point he writes: Dennett actually says of Intuition Pumps: ‘when you read what I write, you download a new app to your necktop’. Really? And how did that work out? You might think I am being a little harsh on Dennett who, as far as one can tell, is a decent chap – but it ...


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I once wrote the Head of Philosophy at Uni of Bristol to ask about the purpose of Russell's symbolic logic because it seemed to me, as a rank amateur with no knowledge of philosophy who had just read a book about it, that it is pointless. He asked me to tea in his study and we had a good chat. He explained that I was basically correct, symbols offer no ...


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Well, it depends on what you mean by philosophy. Philosophy is practiced extensively in every field by those who seek to understand the field conceptually. Bertrand Russell is a living example that mathematics stopped being the study of arithmetic hundreds of years ago, and is largely an exercise in logic and philosophy at the graduate level. Computer ...


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Come to think of it, fairies and Pegasus may in fact exist, while Donald Trump maybe doesn't, so that "Donald Trump is the President of the United States of America" would be a more questionable statement. Most of our logical statements are about things we only believe, indeed that we only imagine, that they exist. Our semantics has better be able to deal ...


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The basic concept of statement (or proposition) used in logic is the following : A proposition is a declarative sentence (that is, a sentence that declares a fact) that is either true or false, but not both. In the context of natural language, the sentence "It is raining" is a declarative sentence stating a fact that is either true or false . Regarding ...


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Skimming though that link, I'm not at all certain that idea is tied to a particular school of thought. This is critical book review, and reviewers often speak from loose conceptual structures rather than tight analytical positions. The idea Shackleton-Jones is trying to get across is that Dennett's description of 'words' is both inaccurate and hypocritical: ...


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Linguists are not always that fond of methods using sciences other than linguistics itself. But certainly there are ways to explain why the word hound is related to hunt; Canis is related to tooth and kalba is related to saliva (drewling). The languages that use these different words are spoken in countries where the dog had different cultural significances. ...


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Whether or not a subset is considered an element of the superset is a metaphysical presupposition in your set theory. In naive set theory, the relationship between sets as elements is not clear, because often the context treats elements and sets as objects and containers through conceptual metaphor. As such, certain implications arise from having containers ...


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We have the concept "car" : an abstract (an universal), and we have individual cars : the objects (the particulars). Individual cars fall under the general car concept. If we assume the existence of the set of all cars (an abstract : the extension of the concept), an individual car is an element of the set of all cars. The concept car is subsumed into ...


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Propositions associated with facts or states of affair are pictures of those facts or states of affairs. In contrast to tautologies and contradictions they have sense and because of that they have true-false poles. Anat Biletzki and Anat Matar provide this description: Tautologies and contradictions, the propositions of logic, are the limits of language ...


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In Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Ludwig Wittgenstein says that every elementary proposition is a picture. Clearly, propositions are not visual pictures. Dictionaries provide apt definitions of the meaning of the word "picture" as it was used by Wittgenstein: Picture The main circumstances of an event or a time; the situation. This is a ...


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