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One slightly "aside" point is that this question is misnamed. The question is not "are we brains in a vat" - in effect we are .. whether the vat is our body hooked up interpreting and creating our perception of the universe via the meagre senses we possess, or we are hooked up to a computer. The question should be "is the universe as we perceive it a reality,...


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The general and blurry line between folk psychology and scientifically rigorous psychology is one, first and foremost, about representations in a presumed (mostly) realist metaphysical position about the world. What the behavioral sciences purport to give is more accurate, more confident propositions about the world than the back-of-the-envelope calculations ...


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If we want the murderer to pay, the death penalty would not lose all justification even if a return to life were possible. This is clear, because we need only apply a rule that murderers are not to benefit from this life-returning procedure'. The death penalty would lose all point only if all persons were to be returned to life. Your possible world ...


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I wouldn't say it's a philosophical necessity as philosophy is logic based and the concept of "making someone pay" is emotion based. The only real "gain" is the emotional high you get out of it. And since not everyone feels good about their wrongdoer getting punished, I'd argue that the generalisation of a "philosophical necessity" does not fit here. But ...


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Death penalty is used by some countries for the most serious crimes, both for punishment and as a deterrent. "Most serious crimes" doesn't necessarily mean (only) murder, so there is a priori no reason why being able to bring the victim back to life would mean not using the death penalty. Actually, the action of the criminal would have been the same, so ...


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I will be making a stronger counter argument: There is no system permitted by standard quantum mechanics which can have true free-will (different from that of a dice roll). An intriguing discussion and links to support the same can be seen from here: So in quantum mechanics everything usually evolves deterministically(/unitarily). However, if a measurement ...


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Quantum mechanics only introduces randomness, it is to say unpredictability. That this randomness can be extended to macroscopic systems like a human brain has yet to be demonstrated, but even if we grant it this is only a counter argument to determinism, or the idea that, if one knew the state of a system one could possibly predict its future states with ...


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Newton had shown with his colour circle that the colour of a light is the way in which we perceive the overall balance of a set of spectral components or "rays" that individually appear other colours. Whitish orange as a colour of light is our perception of a particular overall balance, but tells us nothing about which specific "rays" (wavelengths) are ...


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The question is circular as you would have to be conscious of consciousness. At best you could define and redefine it, but in doing so you are left in a continuum of a point of view. At best consciousness is intrinsically empty, assumes patterns and reuses those patterns as means to keep reassuming. The reason I say consciousness is intrinsically empty is ...


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I'm not sure which problem you're referring to, but if you're just asking whether there's general consensus on the nature or existence of consciousness, the answer is 'no'. Here's an article from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy about the debates and academic research on consciousness up to the time the article was published. And here is another one ...


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I can make a reasonable argument that (say) hammers do not exist in the world. This isn't to suggest that the wooden handle and steel head do not have solid, material form. Instead, I mean that a hammer is primarily a conceptual object, defined by and enmeshed in a set of human social practices that have no correlates in the physical world. A hammer qua ...


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First, let me clarify... Problems that are 'resolved' disappear from philosophy, in the sense that they are no longer discussed or analyzed. Philosophy is an analytical process that aims to restructure the way we think about particular topics or issues; it resolves when we have come to some consensus about what structure that topic or issue should have. That ...


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The dualism of the authors you mentioned is perfectly compatible with the principle of conservation of energy. Though I am not directly answering your question, I may help with some misconceptions in your question. According to dualists, the mind is not fully physical, but there are many types of dualism. Some of them are compatible with the principle of ...


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An attempt at a historical reconstruction. ( What is below is a set of hypotheses that would require a discussion). Since Christian Wolff , consciousness is defned in terms of opposition, of non-identity : subject S is aware/ conscious of X iff S distinguishes X from other things, Y, Z, etc., and distinguishes itself from X. See Wolff , Psychologia ...


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Apparently, there is a text by Popper on TV. The french translation is " La lélévision, un danger pour la démocratie". I cannot find the original reference in english. Also, Boudieu ( a sociologist with a philosophical academic background) : https://monoskop.org/images/1/13/Bourdieu_Pierre_On_Television.pdf


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I think one could distinguish : unity as a special category ( unity, plurality, totality) unity as " originally synthetic unity of aperception"; this unity is " transcendental" in the original sense, that is, above all categories unity as Idea of Reason ( imaginary focus at which Reason is aiming in its effort directed at the " unconditionned " or "...


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Free will does not exist. My personal theory, that I have only now just finalized from absorbing all your various comments is that, "THERE IS AND ISN'T FREE WILL" Which then means it does not actually exist, because it cannot become a choice, therefore the closest title or definition we as human beings can describe it as is " AN ILLUSION " Anyone that may ...


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See Christian Wolff, Philosophia prima sive ontologia, § 884 and § 886. See also : Kant Lexikon, Rudolph Eisler The term " causality " as used in contemporary philosophy derives from Wolff through Kant. Wollf calls " causatum" the relatum of a cause ( = that to which a cause is related, as a " cause of"). Not all " causatum" is an " effect" for there ...


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