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In colloquial terms, conditional probability tries to capture the idea that context matters. For instance, if we ask how likely it is we will be robbed in the coming year, we can do the math: I've seen numbers like a 0.15% chance that any given person will be robbed in any given year. But obviously that's not the same for everyone, everywhere. Someone who ...


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Wikipedia may be a good place to go for initial information on this. Here is what it says: In probability theory, conditional probability is a measure of the probability of an event occurring given that another event has occurred. This tells us that there are two events involved. We want to find a measure for the probability of one event, A, given that ...


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Philosophy of QM is a large subfield of philosophy of science. Philosophy of cosmology is smaller but still significant. Here are some relevant Stanford Encyclopedia articles: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cosmology/ https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/quantum-field-theory/ https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/quantum-gravity/


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Popper tends to criticize, with Bacon, our tendency to demand regularity from nature. Therefore, he might have thought that induction by probability works only because we think that the laws of nature stays the same over time. This is not a correct account of Popper's views. Popper's position is that induction is impossible ("The Logic of Scientific ...


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For Popper, either a theory reflects 'reality' (scare quotes to note how ill-defined that word is), or it does not. There is no sense talking about whether a theory is probably true; either the theory performs as expected (in which case it it true as far as we know), or the theory fails to perform as expected (in which case it is false, and we have to revise ...


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Welcome to Philosophy SE. You mentioned that the cosmological argument "crashes and burns" because the existence of God as uncaused or unexplained contradicts one of the premises of the argument. This is the "what caused God?" objection, but it rests on a misreading of the argument. The cosmological arguments put forward by philosophers do not say that "...


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First of all, as a matter of logic, arriving at a contradiction means that one or more of your assumptions must be false. So, to see what the argument by contradiction proves you have to consider everything that it assumes. So here are some assumptions of the argument: A. Every entity in existence owes its existence to some other entity other than itself (...


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I've been doing a lot of research on this very question and will be publishing some of my findings in a series of books on political science. Are there any relevant figures who talk about the credibility crisis the western world is going through? The corruption of science (and philosophy) is more extensive than most people probably realize. Sadly, I'm ...


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An extensive List on wikipedia List_of_scientific_misconduct_incidents (nothing on global warming nor 9/11 considered by capitalistic mainstream media as mere "conspiracy theories") Joachim Boldt (Germany), an anesthesiologist formerly based at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, was stripped of his professorship and criminally investigated for ...


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You might like to check out this website https://retractionwatch.com It's fascinating the scams that scientist get up up to. They are, after all, just people. You say - "Distrust in science and mass-media have turn out in cases in which parents decided not to vaccine their children because of irrational fears." I would rather say that parents do this ...


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I want to understand why a theory doesn't get more probably true when it is tested and succeed. I recommend that you read Colin Howson, Hume's problem: Induction and the justification of belief (Clarendon Press, Oxford 2000). Howson focuses on David Hume and induction, but discusses Karl Popper in many places. I have lost the source of this abstract, but ...


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I'm actually happy this question popped up in the feed because I'm amazed no one has pointed out the historical changes of the term "science". Unfortunately I don't have the appropriate amount of time to write a full piece of answer, but I'll attempt to draw some general lines. If you consider "science", or moreover the scientific community, as dynamic, ...


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See Intelligence and Spirit by Reza Negarestani. It focuses on various cognitive, computational and ethical issues around the philosophy of mind and artificial general intelligence, with influences from Kant, Hegel, Sellars, Brandom and Turing.


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