Physics as currently taught and practiced does not explain the mind. Questions like this are outside the traditional domain of physics.
It is possible for physicists and nonphysicists alike to speculate on explanations for the mind but there currently are no tools in the physicist's toolbox which would equip him or her to determine what it is.
What you're talking about is metaphysics.
Has there been pre-quantum philosophy of physics which was able to deal with the implications of QM?
Yes. It is not 'philosophy of physics' but simply philosophy. It may be called the Perennial philosophy or non-dualism. It endorses a neutral metaphysical theory. This easily deals with QM as is explained by ...