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46

This is from the dialogue titled Sophist, the Fowler translation at perseus.tufts.edu gives it as: No one should be discouraged, Theaetetus, who can make constant progress, even though it be slow. And the Jowett translation at Project Gutenberg translates it as: Any one, Theaetetus, who is able to advance even a little ought to be of good cheer And in ...


12

Whether Plato's character of Socrates or Plato himself believed in a God or many Gods is not perfectly clear. Additionally, we can't ascribe any sort of belief to the historical Socrates; we just don't know enough about his life that doesn't come from Plato or Xenophon. For the rest of this answer I'll say "Socrates" instead of "Plato's ...


11

Both of the answers are correct to point out that the dialogues are fictitious. It is extremely unlikely any section of any length is a transcript of an actual conversation between Socrates and anyone. This, however, should not surprise us because the idea of making dialogue in a written work a transcript is a modern concept. No one would have done so until ...


11

Key text here may be On opinion, knowledge and belief, CPR B 848-859. There is conviction [Überzeugung]. It is the subjective part necessary for knowledge: Taking something to be true is an occurrence in our understanding that may rest on objective grounds, but that also requires subjective causes in the mind of him who judges. If it is valid for ...


11

Yes, and the Phaedo and the Republic (to cite just two texts) provide evidence for this. Phaedo Running through the dialogue has been the thought that soul and body are sharply distinct and opposed. In fact Plato notoriously wavers, between different arguments, in his treatment of the soul/body relation and the nature of the soul; but in ...


10

In several places, most notably the discussion of the "Allegory of the Cave" in The Republic, Plato's Socrates identifies the Ideal of the Good as the singular source of all good things in the universe. Plato's followers, the Neoplatonists, further identified this Idea of the Good with God, a perspective that was very influential on early ...


10

I do not remember any passage where Plato refers to the Jewish religion or to Jewish mythology. Sometimes Plato refers to myths he pretends to have heard from Egyptians and possibly he invented some myths by himself. E.g., he refers to the myth of Atlantis and he himself traveled to Italy and had contact with he school of Pythagoras and their myths of ...


10

I believe the Nietzsche's passage referred to is this one: "Socrates' decadence is suggested not only by the admitted wantonness and anarchy of his instincts, but also by the hypertrophy of the logical faculty and that barbed malice which distinguishes him. Nor should we forget those auditory hallucinations which, as "the daimonion of Socrates," have been ...


10

I'm not sure Plato directly answers this question, but the dialogs clearly suggest the answer is yes. Plato frequently uses the metaphor of traveling closer or further away from the divine, immortal realm of perfection sometimes characterized as the Realm of the Forms. For example, in the "Allegory of the Cave", from The Republic, the mental journey ...


9

SOCRATES VERSUS BUDDHA ON THE SOUL If Buddhism denies the existence of any continuing self or soul, this appears to conflict with Socrates' view of a continuing soul which is freed and released from the regions of the earth as from a prison. The soul continues to exist, Socrates says, but in radically different conditions. For Buddhism there is no soul to ...


9

Plato, Statesman, 264: Stranger Let us, then, not make our division as we did before, with a view to all, nor in a hurry, with the idea that we may thus reach political science quickly, for that has already brought upon us the proverbial penalty. Younger Socrates What penalty? Stranger The penalty of having made less speed, because we made too much haste ...


9

Your understanding of Euthyphro sounds inverted. At the time, the idea that "good" was just a name for what the gods approve of was a commonplace. Plato's goal here, in fact, is to replace the arbitrary and often contradictory morality of Greek mythology with a more perfect, abstract, consistent and eternal philosophical notion of "good" ...


8

Yes, in part. Socrates is teasing Ion, but also with a purpose. He is drawing Ion out. Ion is flattered by the endorsement of his interpretive talents as derived from the gods, and thinks that this is an endorsement of his artistic or interpretive expertise. Part of why Ion appreciates this view of his talents lies in its connection with the Greek ...


8

Plato believed in deeper levels of Truth and Reality underlying the world as we know it. Because of the relative imperfection of our own world, we can not fully express or directly communicate deeper Truth. However, we have an unbreakable and inherent internal connection to it. Accordingly, Plato believes in a Socratic process of teaching via questions, ...


7

It's arguably not possible to "fully" understand any great work of philosophy. In the Platonic tradition, in fact, the general assumption is that you are being pointed in the direction of things that can never be fully explained, communicated or apprehended. With that said, Plato is extremely readable if you get a good translation, and is an excellent ...


7

Nietzsche writes in the second aphorism from the section What I Owe to the Ancients of his work Twilight of the Idols, or, How to Philosophize with a Hammer (1888): I am a complete skeptic about Plato, and I have never been able to join in the customary scholarly admiration for Plato the artist. The subtlest judges of taste among the ancients themselves ...


7

Both Plato and Gödel were mathematical platonists. Both held that mathematical objects existed abstractly and outside of spacetime. This is what we would call mathematical realism. This position is different from just the Forms because even Plato in The Republic and other dialogues distinguishes between the type of being exhibited by the Forms and by the ...


7

See the Myth of Er : "a legend that concludes Plato's Republic". In the final part (617d–621b), a priest of Lachesis tells the returning souls that they must choose their next incarnate lives and take full responsibility for their destinies : This is the word of Lachesis [...] : Souls that live for a day, now is the beginning of another cycle of ...


7

Welcome, Delforge Heraclitus and constant change - a vexed question THE thought of Heraclitus of Ephesus is still often summarized as " All things are flowing ", panta rhei; by which it is inferred that everything is in constant change. This summary goes back ultimately to Plato, who at Cratylus, 402a, wrote as follows: " Heraclitus says ...


7

IMHO, the meaning of the Republic is is usually lost on modern readers. At first Socrates describes a very simple state, and describes such a state as "perfected". But his interlocutor asks whether Socrates is describing a state for humans or pigs? Socrates' ideal state is too simple for him. Socrates then replies: Yes, I said, now I understand: ...


6

I am not sure that saving phenomena can be used to argue that Plato and Aristotle admitted or did not admit that different suppositions might be consistent with them. At the time Plato posed the problem of reconciling apparent motions of planets with the Pythagorean ideal of uniform circular motions not only wasn't Ptolemy's system around, but no such theory ...


6

Mathematical platonism -- or platonism more generally (with the lower case 'p') -- holds the following three theses about mathematical objects: they (i) exist, (ii) are abstract, and (iii) are independent of intelligent agents. This is typically all that mathematicians mean when they say they are platonists, and the differ in their further commitments. Plato ...


6

Plato's thought has been hugely influential on world religions, with Platonic ideas having been integrated into Christianity (and arguably Islam), via the intermediary of Plotinus, a influential philosopher in the Platonic tradition. You can legitimately argue that Plato's orientation to philosophy is essentially religious, with the philosopher's ...


6

As far as I know Plato's dialogues are fictitious. E.g., Parmenides died at about 460 BCE in the South of Italy, while Socrates was born at 470 BCE in Athens. Hence the meeting of Parmenides with a young Socrates, teaching Plato's theory of forms, cannot be historical. Even when the dialogues are fictitious, some of the interlocutors in Plato's dialogues ...


6

Original. As long as you are interested in a specific author, always the orignial (although for some there might be reading groups/seminars necessary, like Kant, Hegel, Foucault, etc. - but that is not the case for Plato!). You may miss some subtleties (reading it several times over the course of two weeks helps), but it is still better than reading a ...


6

Well, in some ways Callicles comes close. One easily recognizes some of the key themes of Nietzsche's master morality there: the strong dominate the weak by nature, laws protecting the weak are unfair to the strong, morality is not established by gods but by men with their own petty interests, etc. According to Urstad's Nietzsche and Callicles on Happiness, ...


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